Vancouver Referencing System
Vancouver Referencing System
The Vancouver referencing system was developed by The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and is known also as the “author-number' system.
A reference list in the Vancouver style should display all published materials used in a thesis or paper. Consequently, it is unnecessary to make reference to any additional reading or background materials if they are not mentioned in a main text.
References should be presented in number order as the last section of a document and each one should generally include the author’s name, the title of the cited work, and various publishing details.
Citing Writers and Editors
Citing first six of several authors: Where a publication has been authored by six people or more, the names of the first six should be listed and the remaining ones referred to by the term “et al.” These authors should be listed by surname and the initials of their first name(s). Author names should be separated by commas. Where works are authored by agencies, public bodies, or organizations, list the names of the agencies, organizations, etc. in full. List editors in the same manner and position as you would do with authors, following the names with the word “editor” or “editors.”
Citing the Titles of Works
It is only necessary to capitalize the first or initial word of a title, proper name (i.e. the names of persons and organizations) and abbreviated forms (i.e. DNA, HIV, UN, and so on). It is not necessary to capitalize subtitles, while the names of journals should be presented in abbreviated form in accordance with Index Medicus – the standard system.
You should list the place of publication, the name of the publisher and the year of publication. Volume numbers should be included for journal articles as well as the year of publication and page number or page range. Where journals use continuous page numbers throughout every issue of every volume, the month and issue number can be left out. The date of newspapers and page number or page range should be noted. Where articles have been accepted or approved for publication but are yet unpublished, the words "in press" should be added.
Following a 1978 meeting of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors in Vancouver, the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals emerged, and this became the Vancouver style’s official standard or guidelines.
The information provided below is based on these uniform requirements.
With a few small modifications, the Vancouver style is also set out in full in the American Medical Association style manual (or manual of style): an authors and editors guide. 9th ed. This edition was published in Baltimore by Williams & Wilkins in the year 1998.
Where notation is used in references, e.g., in chapters, pages, editors, etc., this is influenced by the language of the writer’s own paper rather than the language of any source being referred to. The following fictional examples come from an English language thesis paper.
Within the text of a paper, references are denoted by parenthesized numbers or numbers in square brackets and in sequential order according to their first appearance in a text. Where a reference is repeated a number of times within a text, it is given the same number each time.
Quick diagnosis of malaria is essential to controlling the illness. However, this is often hindered by the prohibitive costs of training and reliable diagnosis methods (1). It is believed the availability of antigen methods of testing could improve diagnosis in rural parts of the tropics (2-3). Upon receiving an hour’s worth of training, over 60 volunteers were able to undertake accurate diagnosis (2, 4).
Fictional Examples of Reference
Citing a book
Citing new edition books
Citing books with an editor/editors
Citing a chapter of a book
Citing a book authored by an organization
Citing articles from journals
Writer CA, Writer DI, Writer SE. Title of Article. Name of Journal. Year of Publication; volume(number):page/page range.
Citing articles from journals with continuous page numbers
Citing articles from journals that are page numbered per issue
Citing articles from journal authored by more than six people
Citing articles from newspaper
With writer, and pages numbered by paper supplement Wilkinson, B. . Modern music. Weekly News. 2010 3 April; Lifestyle: 3-4.
Citing other materials
Citing SOUs and citing Ds, laws and publications from parliament
Citing SOUs and citing Ds
The Commission of Marine Environment. Scandinavia: new strategies needed: report. Denmark: Fritz; 2013. Official Government Reports 2013: 66.
Transitioning back to work: report on difficulties of moving from welfare back to work. Denmark: Fritz; 2010. Sou 2011: 3rd
Employment opportunities for older people: annual review. Denmark: Department of Employment; 2011. Ds department Series 2011: 20th
Citing publications from parliament
Citing legal source materials
Personal Information Act (SFF 2000: 199). Oslo: Department of Justice. alternatively SFF 1995: 187. Personal Information Act. Oslo: Department of Justice.
Act (1950: 487) on children’s allowance (SFF). Oslo: Department of Social Security. alternatively SFF 1950 487th Act (1950: 487) on child welfare support. Oslo: Department of Social Security.
Citing papers from conferences
Citing publications from conferences
Citing from dictionaries and encyclopedias
Citing source materials from electronic media
Saying where you found a document is essential, e.g., provide the URL and the access date.
You may also visit: