+ Order

Turabian Formatting Style

Using Endnotes and Footnotes in the Turabian Formatting Style 

This guide contains a number of fictional examples designed to show you how to cite various types of sources using the Turabian style of citation. This style was developed by Kate Turabian and is fully explained in a guide entitled “A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Thesis Papers, and Dissertations 7th edition.” It was in 1937 that Turabian created the first version of her writers’ manual as a way of simplifying citation for student writers. The 7th edition of this style manual is based on the 15th edition of the Chicago Style Manual. Please consult your college librarian or refer to the links provided by BestCustomPapers.com for information on source types not covered in this quick reference guide i.e. if you need information about citing manuscript or book collections, video recordings, government-published papers, etc.  

Any time a writer refers to the ideas, words or works of another person in a paper, they should cite the original source of these ideas, words, or works. Papers that deal with humanities subjects (e.g. the arts, history, religion, music, or theology) require the source information used in the text to be displayed in endnotes and footnotes as well as in bibliographies. If you require information about the parenthetical citation system e.g. the author/date system, which mostly applies to science and social science subjects, you can consult the separate Turabian guide that deals with this. It is always a good idea to ask your tutor or professor what their preferred method of citation is.   

Use superscripted numbers in sequential order to indicate all notes in the main body text of a paper (as shown in the fictional examples below). Notes are indented and may either be displayed as endnotes at a paper’s end or as footnotes at the end of any page where the note occurs. A note can be created by first typing the number of the note, with a period following it and on the line where the note actually appears. You should always use this particular method for endnotes and it is also the recommended method for creating footnotes. Superscripted numbers, however, are permissible in the case of footnotes and these (footnotes with superscripted numbers) can be generated by most modern word processing systems. 

Citing a Book

To cite a book, there are some elements that are usually required for the first endnote or footnote and in the bibliography. The order is as follows:

  1. Name of author or name of editor;
  2. Name or title of work;
  3. Name of editor, translator, or compiler (where editor needs to be listed as well as the author);
  4. The edition number of the work;
  5. The name of the book series, to include volume number or any other number that is used;
  6. Publication place, name of publisher, and publication date;
  7. The page number(s) where citations come from (in the case of endnotes and footnotes).

Citing Books with a Single Author or Books Authored by an Agency or Corporation (Fictional Examples)

In-Text Citation 

Information about Author
David Jones carried out experiments on photographic techniques in the mid twentieth century, patenting his new invention in 1952.1

 Book with Editor

Humans are responsible for “global politics”; although leaders can change, the principle still holds.1 

Texts Authored by an Agency or Corporation
A deficiency in iron remains a problem for the children of Eastern and Central Europe.1 

First or Initial Footnote

1Josephine Lamb, Photography, 1900-1980 (New York: City Press, 1999), 231-232.

1Vincent T. Lyons, ed.,Foreign Aid Policy (Washington: K. Ryman Publishers, 1989), 4.

1UN,Children in Danger: The Plight of Children in Eastern and Central Europe, edited by Michael Gills (Brooklyn, NY: T. P. Whiteley, 1988) 33. 

Please note how the name of an editor is treated differently according to whether they take an author’s place (as per the second provided example) or are listed as well as an author (as per the third provided example).   

Additional Footnotes (after the first one)

First Method: list the surname of the author or editor, the work’s title (or abbreviated version of title) and the cited page number(s).

2Lamb,Photographer 1900-1980, 35.

2Lyons, ed.,Foreign Aid21.

2UN,Children in Danger53. 

Second Method: List the surname of the author or editor only as well as the page number(s), omitting the work’s title. 

2Lamb, 35.

2Lyons, ed., 21.

2UN, 53. 

The first method should be used for citing more than a single work by the one author.

Creating Endnotes

1. Josephine Lamb, Photography 1900-1980 (New York: City Press, 1999), 231-232.

2. Ibid.

The Latin term ‘ibid.’is an abbreviated form of ibidem, which translates to “in the same place.”  Iibid should be used for citing identical pages of identical works in successive order without an intervening reference of a different type. Add the page number when citing a different page from one work, e.g., 2Ibid. 44.    

Creating Bibliography Entries

Lyons, Vincent, T., ed. Foreign Aid Policy. Washington: K. Ryman Publishers, 1989.

Lamb, Josephine. Photography 1900-1980. New York: City Press, 1999.

UN. Children in Danger: The Plight of Children in Eastern and Central Europe. Edited by Michael Gills. Brooklyn, NY: T. P. Whiteley, 1988. 

Citing Books with More Than Two Authors/Editors

First or Initial Footnote

1Brian Bell and Kevin Mullin, Science as a Social Theory, 3d ed. (New York: Rathbone and C. Hynes, 1973), 204.

1Winifred Macey, “The Age of Gentelemen,” in Voices from the Past: First-Hand Narratives from the USA, eds. Michael P. Tompson, Salim Patel, and Jonathan Wells (Seymour, LP: Joyce’s Books, 2010), 234. 

Where the number of authors exceeds three, the first author should be named in the citation followed by the term “et al.” All authors should be cited in the paper’s bibliography.

1William T. Spencer, et al., The Power of Fashion, ed. Bruce Blake (Miami: Florida University Press, 1980), 45. 

Additional Footnotes

2Bell and Mullin, Science as a Social Theory, 244.

2Spencer, et al., The Power of Fashion, 52. 

Creating Entries for Bibliographies

Bell, Brian, and Kevin Mullin. Science as a Social Theory, 3d. ed. New York: Rathbone and C Hynes, 1973.

Macey, Winnifred. “The Age of Gentlemen.” In Voices from the Past: First-Hand Narratives from the USA, edited by Michael P. Tompson, Salim Patel, and Jonathan Wells, 234-245. Seymour, LP: Joyce’s Books, 2010.

Spencer, William T., Joseph Capper, David McMillan, Steven Walters, Paul Miles, Helen Larkman, Robert Truman, Simon Grayson, Debra Graham, and Lyndon Holmes. The Power of Fashion. Edited by Bruce Blake. Miami: Florida University Press, 1980. 

Citing Books of the Electronic Type 

The same rules apply as for print version books (see above) but mention a collection if one exists, the URL, and access date.

First or Initial Footnote

1William Blunt, Statement on New Political Strategies (New York: Taylor, Ball and Partners, 1947), in Politics in the Modern Age, http://polnet.newagegroup.com/servlet/MOME?af=RN&ae=U114684301&srchtp=a&ste=14 (accessed August 19, 2010).  

Additional Footnotes

2Blunt, Statement on New Political Strategies. 

Creating Entries for Bibliographies

Blunt, William. Statement on New Political Strategies. New York: Taylor, Ball and Partners, 1947. In Politics in the Modern Age, http://polnet.newagegroup.com/servlet/MOME?af=RN&ae=U114684301&srchtp=a&ste=14 (accessed August 19, 2010).  

Citing Articles from Periodicals

In the case of periodicals, e.g., journals, newspapers, magazines, and so on, all or some of the elements listed below should be included in the first or initial endnote or footnote and in the bibliography, and in the order described:

  1. Author’s name
  2. Title of article
  3. Title of periodical
  4. Volume No or Issue No (or the two)
  5. Date of publication
  6. Page number(s).

In the case of periodicals found online, include:

  1. The URL and access date, or
  2. Name of database, URL, and access date. (Include, where available, the name of the publisher/owner of the database and the city it is/was published in). Where articles are available in several formats e.g. in print or digital format, cite the version you have used.

Citing a Print Version Journal Article

First or Initial Footnote

1Laura Walls, “How Military Strategies Have Changed,” Defense 39, no. 3 (2000): 48. 

This citation refers to page number 48.  For the bibliography entry, it is necessary to display the complete page range i.e. 40-50 (as per the example below).

Where there are continuous page numbers in a journal, there is no need to add issue no.  

1Jason P. Herbert, “The Role of Metaphors,” American Philology Journal 228 (1999): 491. 

Additional Footnotes: 

2Walls, “How Military Strategies Have Changed,” 42.

2Herbert, “The Role of Metaphors,” 496. 

Creating Entries for Bibliographies

Wells, Laura. “How Military Strategies Have Changed.” Defense 39, no. 3 (2000): 40-50.

Herbert, Jason P. “The Role of Metaphors.” American Philology Journal 228 (1999): 490-499. 

Citing Articles from Online Journals

Use the same citation style shown above, but add the website’s URL and access date.

First or Initial Footnote 

Free On the Web

1Harriet Jackman, “How to Avoid Hacking: The Benefit of the Cloud,” Web Technology 10, no. 3 (Winter 2010), http://webtechnologyjournal.org/journal/avoid-hacking-benefit-of-the-cloud (accessed December 15, 2010). 

Citing a Paid Database

1Jason P. Herbert, “The Role of Metaphors,” American Philology Journal 228, no. 3 (Autumn 1999): 491, http://muse.phu.edu/journals/american_philology_journal/v228/228.3.herbert/ (accessed October 14, 2000).

1Marcus Chantrelle, et al., “Discipline in (Single Parent Family) Homes,” Surviving 32 (September 2000): 28, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3270179 (accessed October 10, 2000). 

Additional Footnotes

2Jackman, “How to Avoid Hacking.”

2Herbert, “The Role of Metaphors,” 491.

2Chantrelle, “Discipline in (Single Parent Family) Homes,” 29.  

Creating Entries for Bibliographies

Jackman, Harriet. “How to Avoid Hacking: The Benefits of the Cloud,” Web Technology 10, no. 3 (Winter 2010), http://webtechnologyjournal.org/journal/avoid-hacking-benefit-of-the-cloud (accessed December 15, 2010).

Herbert, Jason P. “The Role of Metaphors,” American Philology Journal 228, no. 3 (Autumn 1999): 491,  

http://muse.phu.edu/journals/american_philology_journal/v228/228.3.herbert/ (accessed October 14, 2000).

Chantrelle, Marcus, Nicola Rice-Taylor, Bernard Walters, and Simon Bell. ”Discipline in (Single Parent Family) Homes.” Surviving 32 (September 2000): 28-37, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3270179 (accessed October 10, 2000). 

Citing Print Version Articles from Magazines

First or Initial Footnotes

For monthly and/or twice monthly magazines

1Steve Hoffman, “Modern Conveniences: The Human Love Affair with Automobiles,” Automobile Monthly, September 2000, 74. 

Weekly magazines

1Alan Sands and Mark Payne, “Reboot in Cyberland,” Cybernews, April 18, 2010, 33. 

Additional Footnotes

2Hoffman, “Modern Conveniences,” 73.

2Sands and Payne, “Reboot in Cyberland,” 51. 

Entries for Bibliographies

Hoffman, Steve.  “Modern Conveniences: The Human Love Affair with Automobiles. Automobile Monthly, September 2000.

Sands, Alan, and Mark Payne. “Reboot in Cyberland.” Cybernews, April 18, 2010. 

Citing Articles from Online Magazines

The same rules apply as in print version magazine articles, but add the website URL and access date.

First or Initial Footnote

1Georgina Green, “The Trouble with Art” Artists.com, June 20, 2010, http://www.artists.com/2010/06/20/art_trouble/ (accessed January 11, 2012).

1Shane Wynn-Jones, “King of Hip-Hop.” The Texan, December 12, 2011, http://search.thetexan.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=34314521&site=ehost-live (accessed July 14, 2012). 

Creating Entries for Bibliographies

Green, Georgina. “The Trouble with Art.” Artists.com, June 20, 2010, http://www.artists.com/2010/06/20/art_trouble/ (accessed January 11, 2012).

Wynn-Jones, Shane. “The King of Hip-Hop.” The Texan, December 12, 2011. http://search.thetexan.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=34314521&site=ehost-live (accessed July 14, 2012).  

Citing Articles from Newspapers

Articles from newspapers will only be cited in notes and not in bibliographies. Stick to the general rule for citing articles from magazines, but page numbers may need to be omitted.

Citing from Print Version Newspaper

1Derek Chaney, “Arsenic Usage in Furniture Making” Washington Daily Herald, March 24, 2010, late edition. 

Citing from Online Newspapers

1Derek Chaney, “Arsenic Usage in Furniture Making,” Washington Daily Herald, March 24, 2010, late edition, in NextGeneration Academic (accessed August 19, 2011). 

NB: In the above example, a stable URL is not provided for the article referred to in NextGeneration, therefore the database name is provided in lieu.

Citing Article Reviews

Use the following guidelines for citing article reviews in all types of periodicals:

First or Initial Footnote

1Germain Williams, “Lizard Cures,” review of Crazy Remedies, by Thomas Geller, Dallas Daily Review, April 4, 2012, http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=115238789&sid=2&Fmt=6&clientId=5614&R… (accessed July 14, 2012).  

1Daniel Henry, “Old Jokes,” review of A Youthful Country, directed by Lionel and Simon Hinds, The Texan, April 30, 2011, 61-74, http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=fah&AN=31035147&si…(accessed May 10, 2011).  

Additional Footnotes

2Williams, “Lizard Cures;”

2Henry, “Old Jokes.” 

Citing from Websites

Usually, a website citation involves citing an article rather than a whole website. When citing such articles, use the “article” rules described above. It is common practice to cite website in continuous text with no need to include this in a reference list. For example, “The Financial Standards Committee states on its website that …”

In the event it is necessary to cite a whole website in a bibliography, all or some of the elements below will need to be included, in the order described:

1. Name of website’s author(s) or editor(s) (where known);
2. Website title;
3. Website URL;
4. Access date.

Fictional Example:

Financial Standards Committee. http://www.fsc2.org (accessed June 11, 2011).

Other Refferencing Styles:

APA Citation Style Chicago Citation Style MLA Citation Style CBE Style of Writing Vancouver Referencing System Harvard Referencing System Oxford Style of Referencing



Gregory G., Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

I could not believe it when I received my completed assignment some three days ahead of time. I truly appreciate your efforts and dedication to your customers. I will recommend you to my entire class.

July 02, 2020 | Essay | Literature
Francesca K., Tel Aviv, Israel.

This writer has done such an amazing job.

June 30, 2020 | Dissertation | Literature
Humphrey O., London, United Kingdom.

That was a great job!

June 29, 2020 | Essay | Nursing
Evelena S., St Louis, MO, USA.

Unquestionably, yours is the best essay site I have come across. I got a perfectly completed assignment on time. Just super! Recommended? Yes, you deserve to be recommended.

June 22, 2020Powerpoint Presentation
Richard R., Vienna, Austria.

I am totally impressed by your ability and speed, I think you are just the best.

June 22, 2020 | Essay | Literature
Shirley H., Austin, TX, USA.

Your help got me the high grade I hoped for. I feel blessed to have found you. My sincerest thanks! Recommended? I would be glad to.

June 22, 2020 | Essay | Education
Raymond H., Albany, NY, USA.

The paper I received was so well-developed and its points so clearly presented that it is the reason why your service outshines so many others. Moreover, my paper was delivered well before its due deadline, which is another bonus. I will trust you with all my future assignments. Thank you, indeed! I would be absolutely delighted to!

June 21, 2020Coursework
Teresa F., Boise, Idaho, USA.

The writer handled such complicated essays with so much ease that I guess she deserves every respect I can accord her.

June 20, 2020 | Essay | Education
Robert S., Los Angeles, CA, USA

I got a great paper, delivered well ahead of the deadline! My minor revision was also done almost instantly. I will definitely be looking for your help again soon! Yes, your essay service is very satisfactory.

June 18, 2020 | Essay | Education
Jackie G., Folsom, California, United States

My paper earned a very high mark from my professor. My teacher commended that the list of references at the last page of my assignment. I was not able to include that in my instructions but the writer included it anyway. Thank you for giving me such a terrific writer. Thank you for taking care of me. Recommended? Yes, without doubt, I would recommend this essay site to my friends and classmates. How does our service compare to the competition? I would not know because I have not tried other writing companies. But since I am completely satisfied, I would not dare transfer services.

June 17, 2020Dissertation
Jill S., Southgate, Michigan, United States

Nice job at all levels! The paper made me and my teacher so happy that I got an extremely high score for it. As for the customer support, it is another edge this essay site has. There was always someone who would assist you in whatever ways you want. I am most delighted with my decision to have you guys. Recommended? I will give an absolute yes to that question. How does our service compare to the competition? There is no competition because your essay site is the number one writing service on the World Wide Web.

June 15, 2020 | Essay | Literature
Wilma H., Ottawa, Canada.

You guys are simply the best and I will gladly give you more work I will be having in future.

June 15, 2020Discussion Board Post
Sean M., Louisville, Kentucky, United States

Probably the best paper I had seen in my academic years. Well written and excellent content. No grammatical errors whatsoever and above all, my instructions were carefully followed. I am glad I asked this essay site to write my paper for me. Thank you so much. Recommended? Yes. How does our service compare to the competition? This is my favorite essay site so far. Tried three others in the past but did not fully satisfy me. This is the only essay service that got full ratings from me.

June 11, 2020Coursework
Dave D., Wichita, Kansas, United States

Normally, I do not resort to buying term papers over the Internet but at the time, the anxiety was just too much I made the decision to send one research paper to somebody else the first time. It was not bad at all. In fact, it helped me boost my academic morale. I got time to work on other equally important things. My paper was finished in due time. Thank you so much for the help when I needed it the most. Your essay site is a wonderful place for us. Recommended? Of course. In the event that you are experiencing difficulty with your writing assignments, do not hesitate to trust this essay service and utilize any of their brilliant writers. How does our service compare to the competition? Like I said, this is my first time to use such service. I am a happy customer so whenever I need assistance, I would definitely get it from them again.

June 11, 2020Term Paper
Kent M., Groveland, Massachusetts, United States

This essay service gets a score of ten out of ten. Couldn’t be happier with their service- incredible writers and fast, reliable service. I had a great time doing business with them, especially my writer and editor. Recommended? Yes, of course. I informed my friends about this essay service. How does our service compare to the competition? This is the first time I used an online writing service company to work on my paper. Never used other services apart from this essay site.

June 11, 2020Business Plan