Turabian Formatting Style

Using Endnotes and Footnotes in the Turabian Formatting Style 

This guide contains a number of fictional examples designed to show you how to cite various types of sources using the Turabian style of citation. This style was developed by Kate Turabian and is fully explained in a guide entitled “A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Thesis Papers, and Dissertations 7th edition.” It was in 1937 that Turabian created the first version of her writers’ manual as a way of simplifying citation for student writers. The 7th edition of this style manual is based on the 15th edition of the Chicago Style Manual. Please consult your college librarian or refer to the links provided by BestCustomPapers.com for information on source types not covered in this quick reference guide i.e. if you need information about citing manuscript or book collections, video recordings, government-published papers, etc.  

Any time a writer refers to the ideas, words or works of another person in a paper, they should cite the original source of these ideas, words, or works. Papers that deal with humanities subjects (e.g. the arts, history, religion, music, or theology) require the source information used in the text to be displayed in endnotes and footnotes as well as in bibliographies. If you require information about the parenthetical citation system e.g. the author/date system, which mostly applies to science and social science subjects, you can consult the separate Turabian guide that deals with this. It is always a good idea to ask your tutor or professor what their preferred method of citation is.   

Use superscripted numbers in sequential order to indicate all notes in the main body text of a paper (as shown in the fictional examples below). Notes are indented and may either be displayed as endnotes at a paper’s end or as footnotes at the end of any page where the note occurs. A note can be created by first typing the number of the note, with a period following it and on the line where the note actually appears. You should always use this particular method for endnotes and it is also the recommended method for creating footnotes. Superscripted numbers, however, are permissible in the case of footnotes and these (footnotes with superscripted numbers) can be generated by most modern word processing systems. 

Citing a Book

To cite a book, there are some elements that are usually required for the first endnote or footnote and in the bibliography. The order is as follows:

  1. Name of author or name of editor;
  2. Name or title of work;
  3. Name of editor, translator, or compiler (where editor needs to be listed as well as the author);
  4. The edition number of the work;
  5. The name of the book series, to include volume number or any other number that is used;
  6. Publication place, name of publisher, and publication date;
  7. The page number(s) where citations come from (in the case of endnotes and footnotes).

Citing Books with a Single Author or Books Authored by an Agency or Corporation (Fictional Examples)

In-Text Citation 

Information about Author
David Jones carried out experiments on photographic techniques in the mid twentieth century, patenting his new invention in 1952.1

 Book with Editor

Humans are responsible for "global politics"; although leaders can change, the principle still holds.1 

Texts Authored by an Agency or Corporation
A deficiency in iron remains a problem for the children of Eastern and Central Europe.1 

First or Initial Footnote

1Josephine Lamb, Photography, 1900-1980 (New York: City Press, 1999), 231-232.

1Vincent T. Lyons, ed.,Foreign Aid Policy (Washington: K. Ryman Publishers, 1989), 4.

1UN,Children in Danger: The Plight of Children in Eastern and Central Europe, edited by Michael Gills (Brooklyn, NY: T. P. Whiteley, 1988) 33. 

Please note how the name of an editor is treated differently according to whether they take an author’s place (as per the second provided example) or are listed as well as an author (as per the third provided example).   

Additional Footnotes (after the first one)

First Method: list the surname of the author or editor, the work’s title (or abbreviated version of title) and the cited page number(s).

2Lamb,Photographer 1900-1980, 35.

2Lyons, ed.,Foreign Aid21.

2UN,Children in Danger53. 

Second Method: List the surname of the author or editor only as well as the page number(s), omitting the work’s title. 

2Lamb, 35.

2Lyons, ed., 21.

2UN, 53. 

The first method should be used for citing more than a single work by the one author.

Creating Endnotes

1. Josephine Lamb, Photography 1900-1980 (New York: City Press, 1999), 231-232.

2. Ibid.

The Latin term ‘ibid.’is an abbreviated form of ibidem, which translates to “in the same place.”  Iibid should be used for citing identical pages of identical works in successive order without an intervening reference of a different type. Add the page number when citing a different page from one work, e.g., 2Ibid. 44.    

Creating Bibliography Entries

Lyons, Vincent, T., ed. Foreign Aid Policy. Washington: K. Ryman Publishers, 1989.

Lamb, Josephine. Photography 1900-1980. New York: City Press, 1999.

UN. Children in Danger: The Plight of Children in Eastern and Central Europe. Edited by Michael Gills. Brooklyn, NY: T. P. Whiteley, 1988. 

Citing Books with More Than Two Authors/Editors

First or Initial Footnote

1Brian Bell and Kevin Mullin, Science as a Social Theory, 3d ed. (New York: Rathbone and C. Hynes, 1973), 204.

1Winifred Macey, “The Age of Gentelemen,” in Voices from the Past: First-Hand Narratives from the USA, eds. Michael P. Tompson, Salim Patel, and Jonathan Wells (Seymour, LP: Joyce’s Books, 2010), 234. 

Where the number of authors exceeds three, the first author should be named in the citation followed by the term “et al.” All authors should be cited in the paper’s bibliography.

1William T. Spencer, et al., The Power of Fashion, ed. Bruce Blake (Miami: Florida University Press, 1980), 45. 

Additional Footnotes

2Bell and Mullin, Science as a Social Theory, 244.

2Spencer, et al., The Power of Fashion, 52. 

Creating Entries for Bibliographies

Bell, Brian, and Kevin Mullin. Science as a Social Theory, 3d. ed. New York: Rathbone and C Hynes, 1973.

Macey, Winnifred. “The Age of Gentlemen.” In Voices from the Past: First-Hand Narratives from the USA, edited by Michael P. Tompson, Salim Patel, and Jonathan Wells, 234-245. Seymour, LP: Joyce’s Books, 2010.

Spencer, William T., Joseph Capper, David McMillan, Steven Walters, Paul Miles, Helen Larkman, Robert Truman, Simon Grayson, Debra Graham, and Lyndon Holmes. The Power of Fashion. Edited by Bruce Blake. Miami: Florida University Press, 1980. 

Citing Books of the Electronic Type 

The same rules apply as for print version books (see above) but mention a collection if one exists, the URL, and access date.

First or Initial Footnote

1William Blunt, Statement on New Political Strategies (New York: Taylor, Ball and Partners, 1947), in Politics in the Modern Age, http://polnet.newagegroup.com/servlet/MOME?af=RN&ae=U114684301&srchtp=a&ste=14 (accessed August 19, 2010).  

Additional Footnotes

2Blunt, Statement on New Political Strategies. 

Creating Entries for Bibliographies

Blunt, William. Statement on New Political Strategies. New York: Taylor, Ball and Partners, 1947. In Politics in the Modern Age, http://polnet.newagegroup.com/servlet/MOME?af=RN&ae=U114684301&srchtp=a&ste=14 (accessed August 19, 2010).  

Citing Articles from Periodicals

In the case of periodicals, e.g., journals, newspapers, magazines, and so on, all or some of the elements listed below should be included in the first or initial endnote or footnote and in the bibliography, and in the order described:

  1. Author’s name
  2. Title of article
  3. Title of periodical
  4. Volume No or Issue No (or the two)
  5. Date of publication
  6. Page number(s).

In the case of periodicals found online, include:

  1. The URL and access date, or
  2. Name of database, URL, and access date. (Include, where available, the name of the publisher/owner of the database and the city it is/was published in). Where articles are available in several formats e.g. in print or digital format, cite the version you have used.

Citing a Print Version Journal Article

First or Initial Footnote

1Laura Walls, “How Military Strategies Have Changed,” Defense 39, no. 3 (2000): 48. 

This citation refers to page number 48.  For the bibliography entry, it is necessary to display the complete page range i.e. 40-50 (as per the example below).

Where there are continuous page numbers in a journal, there is no need to add issue no.  

1Jason P. Herbert, “The Role of Metaphors,” American Philology Journal 228 (1999): 491. 

Additional Footnotes: 

2Walls, “How Military Strategies Have Changed,” 42.

2Herbert, “The Role of Metaphors," 496. 

Creating Entries for Bibliographies

Wells, Laura. “How Military Strategies Have Changed.” Defense 39, no. 3 (2000): 40-50.

Herbert, Jason P. “The Role of Metaphors.” American Philology Journal 228 (1999): 490-499. 

Citing Articles from Online Journals

Use the same citation style shown above, but add the website’s URL and access date.

First or Initial Footnote 

Free On the Web

1Harriet Jackman, “How to Avoid Hacking: The Benefit of the Cloud," Web Technology 10, no. 3 (Winter 2010), http://webtechnologyjournal.org/journal/avoid-hacking-benefit-of-the-cloud (accessed December 15, 2010). 

Citing a Paid Database

1Jason P. Herbert, “The Role of Metaphors,” American Philology Journal 228, no. 3 (Autumn 1999): 491, http://muse.phu.edu/journals/american_philology_journal/v228/228.3.herbert.html (accessed October 14, 2000).

1Marcus Chantrelle, et al., “Discipline in (Single Parent Family) Homes,” Surviving 32 (September 2000): 28, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3270179 (accessed October 10, 2000). 

Additional Footnotes

2Jackman, “How to Avoid Hacking.”

2Herbert, “The Role of Metaphors,” 491.

2Chantrelle, “Discipline in (Single Parent Family) Homes," 29.  

Creating Entries for Bibliographies

Jackman, Harriet. “How to Avoid Hacking: The Benefits of the Cloud,” Web Technology 10, no. 3 (Winter 2010), http://webtechnologyjournal.org/journal/avoid-hacking-benefit-of-the-cloud (accessed December 15, 2010).

Herbert, Jason P. “The Role of Metaphors,” American Philology Journal 228, no. 3 (Autumn 1999): 491,  

http://muse.phu.edu/journals/american_philology_journal/v228/228.3.herbert.html (accessed October 14, 2000).

Chantrelle, Marcus, Nicola Rice-Taylor, Bernard Walters, and Simon Bell. ”Discipline in (Single Parent Family) Homes.” Surviving 32 (September 2000): 28-37, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3270179 (accessed October 10, 2000). 

Citing Print Version Articles from Magazines

First or Initial Footnotes

For monthly and/or twice monthly magazines

1Steve Hoffman, “Modern Conveniences: The Human Love Affair with Automobiles,” Automobile Monthly, September 2000, 74. 

Weekly magazines

1Alan Sands and Mark Payne, “Reboot in Cyberland,” Cybernews, April 18, 2010, 33. 

Additional Footnotes

2Hoffman, “Modern Conveniences,” 73.

2Sands and Payne, “Reboot in Cyberland,” 51. 

Entries for Bibliographies

Hoffman, Steve.  "Modern Conveniences: The Human Love Affair with Automobiles. Automobile Monthly, September 2000.

Sands, Alan, and Mark Payne. “Reboot in Cyberland.” Cybernews, April 18, 2010. 

Citing Articles from Online Magazines

The same rules apply as in print version magazine articles, but add the website URL and access date.

First or Initial Footnote

1Georgina Green, “The Trouble with Art” Artists.com, June 20, 2010, http://www.artists.com/2010/06/20/art_trouble/ (accessed January 11, 2012).

1Shane Wynn-Jones, “King of Hip-Hop.” The Texan, December 12, 2011, http://search.thetexan.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=34314521&site=ehost-live (accessed July 14, 2012). 

Creating Entries for Bibliographies

Green, Georgina. “The Trouble with Art.” Artists.com, June 20, 2010, http://www.artists.com/2010/06/20/art_trouble/ (accessed January 11, 2012).

Wynn-Jones, Shane. “The King of Hip-Hop.” The Texan, December 12, 2011. http://search.thetexan.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=34314521&site=ehost-live (accessed July 14, 2012).  

Citing Articles from Newspapers

Articles from newspapers will only be cited in notes and not in bibliographies. Stick to the general rule for citing articles from magazines, but page numbers may need to be omitted.

Citing from Print Version Newspaper

1Derek Chaney, “Arsenic Usage in Furniture Making” Washington Daily Herald, March 24, 2010, late edition. 

Citing from Online Newspapers

1Derek Chaney, “Arsenic Usage in Furniture Making,” Washington Daily Herald, March 24, 2010, late edition, in NextGeneration Academic (accessed August 19, 2011). 

NB: In the above example, a stable URL is not provided for the article referred to in NextGeneration, therefore the database name is provided in lieu.

Citing Article Reviews

Use the following guidelines for citing article reviews in all types of periodicals:

First or Initial Footnote

1Germain Williams, “Lizard Cures,” review of Crazy Remedies, by Thomas Geller, Dallas Daily Review, April 4, 2012, http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=115238789&sid=2&Fmt=6&clientId=5614&R... (accessed July 14, 2012).  

1Daniel Henry, “Old Jokes," review of A Youthful Country, directed by Lionel and Simon Hinds, The Texan, April 30, 2011, 61-74, http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=fah&AN=31035147&si...(accessed May 10, 2011).  

Additional Footnotes

2Williams, “Lizard Cures;”

2Henry, “Old Jokes.” 

Citing from Websites

Usually, a website citation involves citing an article rather than a whole website. When citing such articles, use the “article” rules described above. It is common practice to cite website in continuous text with no need to include this in a reference list. For example, “The Financial Standards Committee states on its website that …”

In the event it is necessary to cite a whole website in a bibliography, all or some of the elements below will need to be included, in the order described:

1. Name of website’s author(s) or editor(s) (where known);
2. Website title;
3. Website URL;
4. Access date.

Fictional Example:

Financial Standards Committee. http://www.fsc2.org (accessed June 11, 2011).

Other Refferencing Styles:

APA Citation Style Chicago Citation Style MLA Citation Style CBE Style of Writing Vancouver Referencing System Harvard Referencing System Oxford Style of Referencing