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Question 1: How did this large social group come into being? What roles do they play in Chinese cities?
According to recent studies on Chinese people and population trends it was revealed that nearly 15% of the population consists of immigrant workers. This is considerably large portion of the population in China that accounts from rural migrants in cities in search of employment. The high numbers of individuals in the urban centers is attributes to various factors that occurred and influenced high influx of immigrants from the rural areas to the urban centers.
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China has experienced high levels of commercialization in the recent past. The process of commercialization was rapid and financial stability was realized in various urban centers. This resulted to high circulation of funds in urban areas thus attracted huge numbers of rural population. This enhanced economic growth in urban centers and further attracted the rural population to cities and major towns (Li 2001). The movement of the Chinese people from their rural areas to urban centers was highly influenced by the need to secure employment in both the towns and cities as well as need to live quality life. Also, the high number of immigrants in the urban centers was influenced by the government relaxation on migration provision that culminated to enhanced movement of the population. These highlight the fundamental factors that influenced massive influx of immigrants from rural areas to urban centers. The roles played by the migrants in the cities are vast and influences major activities in both government institutions and corporate sector. The immigrant communities play significant role in control of housing rates through their leaders via social principles established by the government (Li 2001). Also, the migrants play a key role in the market sectors of community through the community leaders as well as the social networked created by the immigrants in the urban centers.
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Question 2: How are migrant workers treated by the government and urban residents? How do they respond to these treatments?
Rural-urban migration in China in search of better life meets varying reactions from governmental institutions in respective sectors. Also, the urban population responds to the migrants from different perspective due to the enhanced competition brought by the rural residents migrating to the urban centers. Due to the pre-established policies by the governmental institutions in the country and their correlation to household registration system the immigrants trends to receive different or sub-standard treatment from the government. The fact that the system that policies are mounted in China creates a difference in treatment of urban and rural migration the migrants are treated as rural residents rather than urban dwellers ever after movement to urban centers (Yue 2005). From this perspective the rural migrant in major towns and cities in China have no access to certain basic amenities. This culminates to discrimination of rural immigrants working of searching for employment in urban centers. Discrimination is based on policies established that perceives urban and rural residents differently in the country. For instance the rural migrants in the urban center have no clear access to human rights and inequality in treatment between the urban resident and the workers is evident. Also, the rural immigrant workers from are not entitled to privileges as stipulated by the legal provisions but the urban population enjoy them on the basis of residential settlement. The urban population tends to treat the rural immigrant as intruders and influencers of unfavorable conditions in the urban centers due to their massive migration rural population to urban centers. On the other hand the rural migrants in the urban centers respond to the treatment they receive in the society in various ways. Due to frustrations at work stations and in society the migrants tends to exhibit anti-social behaviors in the society (Yue 2005). According to the recent studies on the migrants Chinese cities the number of crime rates attributed by the immigrants is remarkably and projection indicates that the trend is gradually increasing. This shows the responsiveness of the individuals in China’s urban areas regarded as rural dwellers.
Question3: What changes does migration bring to rural China, in both the east coast and other areas?
Migration from the rural areas of China to urban centers acted as the basis towards various changes in rural Chinese communities. The rural migrants to cities and major towns in search of employment as well as better life resulted to social-economical changes in the rural areas due to the linkage development by the migration. The fact that the economic development ion urban centers were high the migrants’ employment in the industries played a significant role in ensuring that boosting economic status of the rural population. Also, the social aspects of the rural people in the China changed due to the association of rural population with the urban society. In precise approach to the implication of migration from rural areas of China, Chen Village became a renowned production area with well installed infrastructure for both production and enables accessibility from different parts. The common agricultural activities of the village were highly replaced with factories which accommodated huge numbers of workers. This not only created employment for the residents but also enhanced economical development of the area. The other parts of the nation also experienced changes in circulation of monetary, purchasing power and enhanced economical development (Chan, Madsen, and Unger 2009). Therefore, migration to the urban centers played a significant role in influencing development of the rural population as well as development of role areas through industrialization and improvement of the infrastructure in the areas.
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Question 4: How does the rapid growth of rural-urban migration challenge Fei Xiaotong’s argument on the nature of Chinese society?
Fei Xiaotong a renowned sociology scholar on Chinese origin formulated a social concept aimed at giving a clear understanding as well as description of the rural Chinese society. The work of the scholar was based on both theoretical and research conducted on a practical platform. The fact that Xiaotong was Chinese native he comprehended the social environment in China therefore his arguments were based on factual analysis of the Chinese society. For instance he gave an informative description of the farmers in China who depended highly on the world markets (Fei, Hamilton, and Wang 1992). However, the rapid migration of the rural population to urban centers highly challenged his argument that called for industrial development of the rural areas. The fact that migration drove rural population to urban areas the argument posed by Xiaotong lacked evidence on practical platform. The rapid migration established the notion that urban centers posed to be the most appropriate areas for personal development rather that establishing similar facilities in the rural areas. Though the scholar’s argument represented the inadequacies in Chinese society the rapid migration resulted to swift changes in the nature of the entire situation.
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Question 5: What would happen if the hukou system were abolished? What would happen if the hukou system persists in order to improve the working and living conditions of migrant workers?
Hukou system that involved registration of one residence in China was established as means to control the rampant growth of rural immigrants in urban centers in search of better conditions. Evaluating of implication of either abolishing or maintaining the system culminates to varying results. On the abolition of the system registration of residence would be eliminated and movement of any group of individuals required no permission from the authorities. On the grounds that the rural population was expected depend upon them selves to meet their need and the urban population depended upon state organs for jobs registration of residence was crucial. Therefore, the government required to establish plans in order to meet the job demands of the urban population. In case the system was abolished the rural-urban migration would be high and beyond the capacity of the government to create jobs. On the other hand, in its existence the rural population feels discriminated by the government and trends to safeguard job positions for the urban population. From this perspective appropriate policies were required to safeguards the interests of both urban and rural population in the society.
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