April 25, 2020
Though computers were invented before 1950s, the number of computers, which existed then, was still minimal thus making computer engineering a field that had not been fully fledged. Then, most advancement in technology was exploited in radar, cryptography, and exchanging messages in battlefields by the military in the wake of World War II. It can now be concluded that government operations actually played a key role in the invention and internet growth. Towards the end of 1957, the Soviets invented Sputnik, the earliest venture by man into the outer space. In a quick rejoinder, the U.S. authorities under President Eisenhower eventually set up a vigorous campaign by the army to put up stiff competition to the Soviet, the sole aim being to outdo them in their new venture. The Sputnik launch done by the United States of Soviet Republic (U.S.S.R.) and the trials it made on its initial global ballistic missile saw the formation of the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) by the US. ARPA served as the research agency for government working on space and tactical rocket research. The 1958 saw the formation of NASA, and the actions of ARPA shifted from aeronautics to the new focus of computer engineering and processing of information. Key among the goals of ARPA was to link mainframe computers situated at various tertiary institutions across the nation to enhance communication with the help of a single language called protocol. ARPAnet therefore became the globe’s first computer network to be set on multiple-site, in 1969. Shortly before, in the wake of Cold War, the Pentagon developed interest in the way its top secrets would be made permanent on computer. The computers they used then were kept in houses built on strategic sites across the US. An idea was floated to have the computers used by the top military team to be linked in a way so as to ease the access of the information in any of the computers connected. The project had a code name of Arpanet, meaning Advanced Research Project Agency Network. The following year saw Arpanet linking four computers situated in four tertiary institutions throughout the western part of the United States. Kept in different houses singly at the University of California Santa Barbara, University of Utah, StanfordUniversity, Los Angeles, and the University of California, these four machines served as the very first precursors of the interconnected network, (Castells, pp 96-138).
The ARPAnet laid the weight of transfer of information and the exchange of messages exclusively on the machines that made up its network. Each computer had the responsibility of wrapping the information at the same time making sure the information reached its planned destination. The cables that were used to link the computers on the network served only as channel. The computer protocol, a common term, was set up to enhance communication among networked computers. The protocol was subsequently named Transfer Control Protocol; in short it, Internet Protocol or TCP/IP. Today, TCP/IP has become the most extensively used internet computer language, extending its use to even several private networks as well as the Intranets, (Graham, pp 19-66).
Today, few states are left behind in terms of the connection and use of interconnected network. Though the internet plays a key role in the global economic growth, by improving online trade, socialization and the exchange of ideas, it has come with flaws, which serve to water down the moral gains in the society. More dirty sites are being developed and made accessible to even the young unsuspecting kids; online cons are also making a kill on the internet, calling for proper measures to regulate it.
Get a price quote