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Analysis of Autism Disorder
The research proposal is aimed at finding out whether young children stand a chance of living normal lives after detection and treatment of autism. The research proposal is to be carried out to help curb the increasing cases of autism spectrum disorder in all corners of the world. The cause of autism has not yet been established or proven scientifically, although some scientists have linked the disorder to arise from the genetic compositions of parents. Autism causes a noticeable societal withdraw of individuals. Autism can be detected in the early childhood – in children between two and three years of age, and it becomes more sophisticated in adults.
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Autism in adults can only be verified by means tests, as the symptoms may be similar to those of people suffering from mental disorders. The research proposal will involve the collection of data from different sources, including the families with children suffering the disorder and the parents who have children suffering from autism. The methods used to carry out the research will include interviews, surveys, and observations. The obtained results will be analyzed with the use of SPSS and Excel to identify common trends. The analysis will also seek to identify the correlation between stage identification and drug effectiveness in the treatment of autism. The analyzed study will then be sent to the autism patient via email addresses obtained during the interviews. To protect the confidentiality of the autism patient, both the interviewer and the interviewee will sign a non-disclosure agreement to ensure that no names will be released to the press for publication. Cases of autism disorder cases increase at an alarming rate, and the sooner the cause is found, the sooner people will be able to avert the danger. The world should unite and in one accord fight the menace that threatens entire generation. With regard to this, the Centers for Disease and Control Prevention has donated $27 million to a research to study more about autism and come up with appropriate techniques for prevention and early diagnosis.
Autism Spectrum Disorder is the term used in the description of a group of prevalent disorders with main impairments occurring in social relationships, communication, the flexibility of thought, and restricted repetition of activity and interest. The victims of the disorder may display social indifferences such as refusing to play with other children or joining only when coerced by adults. Children suffering from Autism may experience some difficulties in verbal and non-verbal communication, and some may not talk at all (Autism Victoria, 2011). Autism disorders are caused by improper brain development. Moreover, autism disorders are majorly associated with intellectual disability, difficulties in motor coordination and attention as well as problems with the gastrointestinal system. However, despite the challenges faced by people suffering from autism, some people suffering from autism excel in music, art, math, and visual skills. Autism symptoms are not detected until an early age of 2 and three years (What is autism, n.d.). Autism disorders are referred to as a Spectrum due to their tendency of occurring as a group of conditions. There are three subtypes of autism, namely autistic disorder, Aspergers syndrome, and pervasive development disorder (Autism Victoria, 2010). Autism affects one out of every 68 children in the United States (Bhandari, 2016). However, it is unclear whether the increased detection of the rise of autism in the population emanates from the better detection systems in place or an actual increase in the cases of autism.
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Early detection of autism is vital for every child suffering from the disorder, as it will assist in the adoption of methods that will lead to significant gains in language learning and development of skills for social interaction (Bhandari, 2016). The Center for Disease and Control Prevention (CDC) will invest more than $27 million to expand knowledge in the area of Autism disorder in children. This research will assist laboratories to identify causes and reasons for autism disorder using children volunteers who are suffering from the disease (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2016).
Statement of the Problem
Autism levels in the world are on the rise at an alarming rate, while detection systems improve by the day. However, the lines on how to live with autism grow more and more blurred as most parents are not taught how to handle the disease. Increased stigmatization has led many parents not to come out for help, as many of them believe in the current societal myths that autism is caused by something they did or did not do (Autism Victoria, 2011). While the government strives to identify how autism can be treated or how it can be avoided the victims continuously continue to suffer unclear of what to do with their individual lives. This research paper aims to answer the question whether children discovered to be suffering from autism can continuously live healthy lives like their friends who do not suffer from autism disorder. This research is performed despite the fact that people suffering from autism disorder experience communication and social impairments.
Purpose of the Study
The goal of this study is to determine whether early detection of the autism spectrum syndrome in the early stages in children can lead to them living healthy lives like children who do not have this disorder. This study aims to identify whether there is a survival and success curve in children who are diagnosed with autism. The study also seeks to determine whether children diagnosed with autism can develop skills that can help them overcome their impairments to live more normal lives like other people.
For the purpose of this study, the following question will be addressed:
Does early detection of autism in children lead to improved social interaction and language skills as compared to late autism screening?
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It is possible that early autism detection can lead to better chances of assistance, which may result in improved language and social interaction skills
Definition of Words
Autism refers to a mental condition that presents itself in early childhood and thatis characterized by communication as well as interaction difficulties. Executive function refers to the ability to uphold a suitable decision-making set to achieve a future goal. Autism Spectrum Disorder is the term used in the description of a group of prevalent disorders with main impairments, occurring in social relationships, communication, the flexibility of thought, and restricted repetition of activity and interest. The theory of mind hypothesis of autism can be defined as a state that the individuals suffering from autism fail to attribute mental states to themselves and people surrounding them. Weak Central Coherence theory refers to an explanation of the non-social and social aspects of the autism spectrum disorder.
Detection of autism disorder in the early stages is crucial, as treatment and proper care can be administered to a patient to reduce the difficulties and increase the persons ability to maximize their abilities. There is no best treatment or cure for autism but drugs can help slow down and reduce the effects caused by autism if early detection is done (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2015). Scientists have not figured out the actual causes of autism; however, it is speculated that genetic composition may be the actual cause of the disorder. Furthermore, there are no scientific pieces of evidence in place that have linked autism disorder with vaccines (Autism Victoria, 2011)
Recent studies suggest that the above-mentioned study is the best to identify autism disorders. It is suggested that the theory of mind models and simulates an analog model of any agent in the environment. These suggestions may be upheld as true since the researchers working on the theory suggest that children with autism could not recreate the mental state of the dolls. The theorys understanding is based on information processing by the brain. A study conducted by a researcher revealed that autism individuals overly rely on details. The overreliance comes at the expense of understanding the actual meaning of the situation or context.
The word autism is derived from the Greek word autos, which means self. The naming was done to the fact that the disorder causes an individual to withdraw from social interaction (Ramachandran & Oberman, 2006). Autism refers to a spectrum that is closely related to disorders with shared symptoms. Commonly, autism spectrum disorders manifest themselves in early childhood as well as infancy, causing delays in a childs development such as play talk or interaction with other. Every child with autism has diverse problem individually in the following areas. First, the problems arise in the verbal and non-verbal communication; the second area is the behavior as well as thinking flexibility. The third area is the relation with the world around them or others. Children need to be monitored in their development continuously. Moreover, the children who fail to meet milestones in time should be taken for review immediately. Any regression is primarily a serious warning of autism. There is no best treatment or cure for autism but drugs can help slow down and reduce the effects caused by autism if early detection is done (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2015). Scientists have not figured out the actual causes of autism; however, it is speculated that genetic composition may be the actual cause of the disorder. There are various theories that elaborate on autism and its development.
Hypothesis Theory of Mind
The theory of mind hypothesis of autism states that individuals suffering from autism fail to attribute mental states to themselves and people surrounding them (Schlinger, 2009). As a result, this failure of taking note of their mental states leads to their failure to pay attention to the mental states of individuals who surround them. Individuals with autism can be easily agitated when other people tend to ignore them. However, they hardly understand that other people think differently from them. Various behavioral symptoms are shown by people suffering from autism. They include social functioning impairment, communication impairment, and decreased imagination as well as communication among others. The theoretical test used a doll which was used to inform the location of the object where the victim was requested to deduce the state of mind of the doll (what the doll thinks). Baron-Cohen, Leslie, and Frith (1989) found out that 80% of victims suffering from autism had failed this test and this proved the deficiency in the theory of mind.
There are two orders of theory of mind – the first order theory of mind refers to when one infers the thought of another individual. Normally, children acquire the first order theory of mind by the age of four years, while the second order theory of mind states that reasoning is attained with age. In the second theory of mind, children are able to think about other peoples thought other than themselves. For instance, a child may observe two other children play and reason what one child is thinking about the other. The theory of mind states the spectrum of autism disorder require desire to predict behavior depicted by other people. The significant difference between autism and normal children is the computational capacity to correspond to the mental states due to neurological basis. Autistic children seem to have damaged brain system, which prevents a critical cognitive operation mechanism in them. The deficit of theory of mind does not only happen to children with autism only since even grown up people suffer from autism. However, adults are more likely to pass the first order theory of mind relative tests as compared to the performance of autistic children. For the second order theory of mind, many autistic children and adults do not pass the performance test, thus providing evidence for impairment level. There are various causes of theory of mind impairment, but in this case, biological causes are noted. Autism is more frequent in males as compared to females because of brain orientation where the male brain is said to function through the right side of the brain unlike the female one that functions in both sides. In autism, specific regions in the brain are more involved in theory of mind task tests.
The Theory of Executive Dysfunction
The theory of Executive Dysfunction in Autism was discovered by scholars who had associated some symptoms of autism to similar to symptoms arising from patients who had brain injuries. Contrary to the theory of mind, this theory explains that autism leads to a disruption of the executive brain functions due to damage to the frontal lobe of the brain. Executive function is the ability to uphold a suitable decision-making set to achieve a future goal. Executive function is comprised of planning behavior, control of impulse, organized searches, and flexibility both in action and thought (Rajendran & Mitchell, 2006).
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The executive function allows a proper development of a childs mind and poor performance leads to the inability of a child to exhibit prepotent response, thus resulting to inactive memory. During the tests of executive memory, participants have to shift focus between reaction sets conferring to an arbitral rule. In an example of Wisconsin card sorting task, a participant needs to say yes when a card with color red is turned. The participant should also say no when a card with black color is turned. The other rule of the game is that the participant should say yes if the card chosen is the same color as the previously picked card; otherwise, the victim should say no (Rajendran & Mitchell, 2006).
The Weak Central Coherence Theory
The Weak Central Coherence theory explains the non-social and social aspects of autism spectrum disorder. The theory tries to explain the minor details that range from sophistry to fascination that affect people suffering from autism. The theory explains that developing human beings process information in the brain by first extracting the overall meaning of the information they receive (Rajendran & Mitchell, 2006). Researchers suggest that individuals suffering from autism lack the drive for universal coherence (Rajendran & Mitchell, 2006). This infers that individuals suffering from autism process messages in constituent fragments rather than wholly as normal minds. In an experiment known as visual spatial coherence, it was observed that children suffering from autism had scored the tests above normally on childrens embedded figures. It was observed that children suffering from autism were faster to reproduce 40 unique block designs than studying controls of the neurotype. The visual spatial coherence experiments are made of figures that can be segmented to provide smaller integral modules.
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As the result of central coherence in the neurotypical individuals, the smaller components are not as greater as the bigger shape. However, the individuals suffering from autism have a different view where the smaller segments to them are more conspicuous than the greater bigger shape (Rajendran & Mitchell, 2006).
The data collection method will involve the use of both interviews and surveys. The interviews will be carried on the parents of children who have the autism disorder and the adults living with autism. The interviews will involve both open-ended and closed-ended questions in order to build a relationship of trust between the interviewer and the respondent.
Research Design and Sampling
The research designs that will be used for this research will be the use of observation and surveys. The researcher will travel to the homes and facilities where children suffering from autism are treated to observe the disorder in them and interview the handlers of the children. A survey to identify the most affected areas will be carried out by the researcher.
A tape recorder will be used to record the interviews in order to prevent data corruption by the interviewer. The use of a tape recorder is predetermined by the purposes of re-evaluating the data to find critical information that may be forgotten after information has been gathered.
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Data Collection and Analysis Procedure
The data collected from the interviews, observation, and surveys will be tallied and brought in for analysis. The data will be analyzed using Microsoft Excel and SPSS to identify trends and patterns of occurrences of the disorder and the recovery cases comparison. The analysis will involve the chances of having a normal life back after diagnosis and treatment, especially in children. A comparison of early detection and treatment will also be contrasted to later detection and subsequently late treatment.
Protection of Human Rights
To protect the families and the individuals who take part in the research, the names of the individuals will not be published by any source and they cannot be used in any source. Both the interviewer and the interviewee are to sign a non-disclosure agreement in effect to this. The respondent is allowed to leave the interview and withdraw from the study anytime they feel necessary. The participants of the survey will receive the analyzed reports via email when the research is complete. The participants should consent before the interview so that no one should be forced without their will to take part. To protect the confidentiality of the autism patients, both the interviewer and the interviewee will sign a non-disclosure agreement to ensure that no names will be released to the press for publication
The study will assist future scholars to draw the lines of argument between early diagnosis of Autism and the positive impact that the diagnosis may have on the life of the person suffering from victim. This research will assist scholars in identifying relationships between autism development and measures that can be taken to weaken its severe effects. However, the research proposal does not cover possible ways to cure. Autism can only be detected in the early childhood, usually in children between two and three years of age. However, in adults, it becomes more sophisticated. Autism disorders are majorly associated with intellectual disability, difficulties in motor coordination and attention as well issues related to gastrointestinal organs. However, despite the challenges faced by people suffering from autism, some of them may show excellent results in music, art, math, and visual skills Autism in adults can only be verified from tests, as the symptoms may have some resemblance to those of the people suffering from mental disorders. Since the cases of autism disorder are increasingly registered at an alarming rate, the sooner the cause is found, the sooner people will be able to treat or prevent this condition. world.
The project research is approximated to cost around $1,000 from its beginning to its end. With regard to this, the Centers for Disease and Control Prevention has donated $27 million to a research to study more about autism and come up with the appropriate techniques for prevention and early diagnosis. The amount will cater for the miscellaneous expenses and costs that will be met throughout the study.
With the rapid spread and increased number of cases of autism disorder, researchers are objected to carrying out more and more research in the autism field to prevent it. People already suffer from autism, so the only thing healthy people can do is assist those with autism. There should be sensitization campaigns against stigmatization of autism individuals and donations to cater for heavy medical bills incurred in the process of treatment. Humanity can only hope for the future where there will be vaccines and full treatment of the autism spectrum disorders. Early detection of autism is vital for every child suffering from the disorder, as this will assist in the adoption of methods that will lead to significant gains in language learning and development of skills for social interaction.
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