Ancient Greek Architecture
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The Temple of Apollo is one of the important structures that was built during the Ancient Greek period. The beautiful design of the interior and the exterior parts of the temple attract many people from the whole world. The temple was built for the veneration of the Greek deities and gods. However, the buildings of that time remain only as ruins nowadays. Nevertheless, they still attract people due to their special constructional methods and designs. They used tall columns to construct the temple.
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However, there are some religious and artistic values of that construction. These buildings have a specific impact on the modern building structure. The study discusses the influences and methods of the ancient Greek architecture on the present day architects. The Greek built several buildings and temple in several places of the earth. The Temple of Apollo was one of the most important built by the Greek architects. The thousand years old architectural styles of the ancient Greek architectures may be observed in the modern buildings.
The European culture started following that of the Ancient Greek. Moreover, Greece is the founder of the modern European culture. The religious and artistic values of Ancient Greece had played a significant role in the development of the contemporary Europe, including the modern world. The theme of such ancient culture remains very popular and appealing to the current society. In this work, several publications, mythology and articles, historical sources, scientific articles are used. The main objective of this study is to expose the importance of Ancient Greek culture, especially architectural importance of Apollo Temple in the present-day world. During late Bronze Age (1500-1100 BCE), the site was settled first during Mycenaean period. It gets religious importance nearly around 800 BCE. Pytho was the first name of that sanctuary that changed to the name Apollo since it was believed that he was killed there.
Temple of Apollo at Didyma
The Temple of Apollo (Delphi) is situated in a modern town of Greece, which is an archaeological site in the south-western direction of Mount Parnassus in the basin of Phocis. It is believed that the Delphi was settled by Zeus while he inquired his Grandmother Earth. In fact, it is considered that the temple was built according to the direct order of Zeus who was a Greek God. Zeus employed two eagles, and they guard the land and site.
Moreover, some people believe that the temple was built under the instructions of a Delphic oracle that foretold the construction of this outstanding temple . It is a peripheral Doric building while the ruins of the temple are still visible. It was built in the 400 BC. Initially, the temple was devoted to Poseidon and Gaia. According to Greek mythology, Apollo was a young man and killed Gaias child. On the other hand, the child was python who lived at one of the springs of Delphi. The Greek mythology elucidates that the springs at Delphi permitted predictions since they released vapor. Apollo had to face death since he had killed the python. Moreover, the Greek myth tells that Oracle, gaining power from the vapor and springs, predicted to build the temple. Many people consider Delphi as the center of the world. The Ancient Greek architecture was invented by the Greek-speaking people. Their culture was scattered through Greek mainland, including several other places such as the Asia Minor, Peloponnesus, the Aegean Islands, and in Italy. The Ancient Greek architecture is famous due to its temples that were established throughout the area. Currently, most structures remain only as ruins. However, most of them are substantially undamaged. The highly dignified uniqueness of the Ancient Greek architecture is eminent from other architectures. The specialty of such temples is the effects of the surfaces light viewed from all the angles. Each construction materializes as a sculptural body within the setting. In fact, the bodily appearances of such buildings are stronger and more alive than the later structures. There are three defined orders of the Ancient Greek architecture. These are the Doric order, the Ionic order and the Corinthian order, which seem to have significant effect on the Western architecture.
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The architecture of the Ancient Rome is greatly influenced by the Greek architectural formation. The precise form and ordered detail made the Greek architecture innovative that proved to be not only of architectural beauty but also balanced and proportionate. The Greek restoration architecture and The Neoclassical architecture followed the technique of that of Ancient Greek. During the 6th century BC, the name of the temple was changed to Temple of Alcmonidae in order to pay tribute to the Athenian family since they funded its renewal. The new building becomes Doric hexastyle temple containing 6 by 15 columns. In 373 BC, due to an earthquake, this temple was demolished. Know thyself is one of the maxims of that temple. Theodosius I destroyed it and the statues in the name of Christianity. In fact, the location was totally destroyed by the fanatical Christians that they could remove all the signs of Paganism.
Peculiarities of the Temple
After close observation, there are two geological faults found in the temple. These faults are crisscrosses under the building. The geologists comment on the fact that the intersections were made to allow the passage of water and gases that remain underneath the ground. During tectonic activities, the limestone was heated to the high temperatures to an extent that they would vaporize . The gaseous vapors would then move through the fissures that had been created by the faults to the temple near the oracle. Therefore, based on the geological findings, the oracle was questionable . On the other hand, current research proves that the hydrocarbon vapors and ethylene that emitted from bedrock cracks at the intersection were responsible for the visionary powers of Pythia who was articulated as the lady of the Delphic oracle in the temple of Apollo in Greece. The gas invasion from underground area, groundwater gas, and isotopic investigations of spring scales offer the investigational evidence of the gas discharge in the temple region. Currently, carbon dioxide, methane, and ethane are being emitted from thermo genic hydrocarbon-inclined atmosphere. This atmosphere is not inclined to biogenic manufacture of ethylene. There is a WNW-ESEtrending additional fault. Above this fault, the temple of Apollo is located. If the Pythia is affected by the gas-linked neurotoxin and needs to be raised, there should be required the option of oxygen reduction due to CO2-CH4 exhalation inside the temple.
Furthermore, the reason of the natural existence of charming scents may be due to aromatic hydrocarbons benzene that could have been dissolved in the groundwater spring. The Greek religious places were the most beautiful and the biggest. In addition, they were also marked by some political significance as they were used to celebrate civic power and pride . The earliest historical references frequently depict the fascinating gas that was produced by a cave under the floor. It seemed to establish the supremacy at the oracle of Delphi. All these depictions are proved by the related geographical findings. These gases include hydrocarbon such as ethylene, methane, and ethane. The consequences of ethylene inhalation are almost same that those in the ancient writings. Another noticeable structure at the place is Temple of Athena. It was built in 4th century BC with the capacity of five thousand spectators. It contains 13 Doric columns. The artistic and factual possessions had been displayed in such a way that any visitor can be greatly impressed. The temples were also used as a mark of success in war and cities for offering thanksgiving .
Peculiarities of Greek Buildings
The Ancient Greek architects used to deploy three architectural methods by the name of orders while making any structures or important buildings. The Greeks comprise Corinthian, Doric and another one called Ionic order. The modern scholars state that a significant aspect of Ancient Greek culture is the oracle of the Delphi. It offers various tales both genuine and imaginary. Roger Lipsey retells and reinterprets tales from ancient literature, such as those of Plutarch, Cicero, Socrates, and Aeschylus, and examines their philosophical influence and importance to the scholars today . Each of these three orders had a distinguishing detailing and a unique proportion . The Doric style was plain and sturdy. The Ionic style, style was thinner that the Doric and was well-designed . Such a role as design, which is known as a volute, was used to manage this method in the decoration. Finally, the Corinthian order and fashion was so smart that it was rare among the Greek as well as among the Roman. The Temple of Apollo (Delphi) was built using the Doric style.
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Two famous architects Agamedes and Trophonios were the ones who built the first during the 7th c. B.C. However, the temple was destroyed later after being damaged by fire . The study of Orcle started in 1900 century during the period of French quarries regarding the site. An honorable family, who facilitated all the expenses collected from foreign emperor and Greece to reconstruct the temple, managed its construction However, the earthquake damaged the temple. The Greeks were compelled to reconstruct the temple due to its importance. Agathon, Spintharos, and Xenodos, who were Greek architects, oversaw its construction for the third time. Today, the temples foundation is still visible and some of the several Doric columns are still erect .
Different materials were used while building the temple. For example, the porous stones were applied to construct the foundations of the temple. The stones were covered with the gray limestone. At Delphi, the size of the temple of Apollo is 21.6m x 58.2m. It was smaller than the Pythia (oracle). The probable location of the temple was western part of the naos. Numerous elements of the temples interior side remain unidentified. The used materials and the fundamental structural design of the outer side are basically established. Apart from the foundation, the columns were also made of porous stones and a stucco coat was applied to the porous stone. Gray limestone was used to make the surfaces and the walls while the rooftop was made of marble extracted from Paros Island .
The exquisitely beautiful interior side attracts many tourists. It is one of the world heritages that has been declared by UNESCO. The temples interior part was adorned with some statues such as the statue of Apollo, the statue of Zeus, Fate and Poseidon . The temple contains 6?15 columns, including cella opening ends. There is an opisthodomos that has a porch-style in antis. as well as two rows contained by the cella. The temple had a hearth or a Hestia, which was common among Greek temples.
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There was also an iron throne, which was used by Pindar for sitting when singing hymns to Apollo . The northern row contains 8 columns whereas the southern one contains 6 columns. At the end of the cella, there is a chamber that embraced the Omphalos and the Oracular temple. Outside the temple, there is an altar constructed using black marble. Other features, such as the sibyl rock and the Stoa, are also located outside the temple . The brilliant interior design and construction as well as exterior part of the building attract numerous people to visit the temple.
The Importance of Greek Architecture
Lipsey includes an intriguing conversation with a Tibetan lama and scholar, Lobsang Lhalungpa, who lives in the U.S., on the parallels between the Chief State Oracle and the Delphic Oracle of Tibet . The importance of the Greek architecture is vital for several reasons. Firstly, the logic and order of such architecture play a significant role in this context. The temples were planned by the Hellenes, in accordance with a coded scheme of the parts. It was based on the function. Furthermore, the temples were deployed to the system of sculptural beautification. The specialists determined the proportion, the synchronization, the eye’s gratification. There had never been architecture just in this sense. Egyptian pyramid architecture had been an early attempt, but Greek building art offered the first clear, strong expression of a rational, national architectural creed . In fact, the temple is the best paradigm of the intelligence that is working rationally to produce the combined aesthetic outcome.
The Greek designers used precise mathematical calculations to determine the altitude, thickness, and other features of architectural elements. The measurements of the temple might have been changed. Secondly, the discovery of classical orders seem to be innovative in the construction sector. There exists the Doric order, the Ionic order and the Corinthian order, according to the type of column, capital, and entablature used . Thirdly, such architecture is important due to its beautiful architectural sculpture. Such unique instances of architectures are rarely found in other art history of the world. The fourth and final reason of its importance is its impact on other schools. The simple post-and-lintel construction techniques caused further advancement of the Greek architectures. However, the process failed to achieve modern engineering techniques. However, they prospered in producing the most gorgeous, colossal constructions of the Ancient World. Such formulas rendered the technique for Renaissance and Neoclassical architecture. Such method has a great impact on the approach, ratio, style, and aesthetics of the 18th to 19th centuries. Consequently, the architects of the modern period were influenced by the Greek architectural guidelines. Louis Sullivan (1856-1924), for example, a leading figure in the First Chicago School, grounded a lot of his skyscraper designs on the Greek template of shaft, base, and capital, while applying vertical bands (reminiscent of the fluting on Greek columns) in order to draw the eye upwards.
Apollo Temple in the Modern Architecture
The Greek-invented ancient method of architecture and styles are being utilized nowadays. The three architectural methods that were invented by the Greek architects are Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian. These methods are used nowadays. Such methods may be observed all over the world. The Ancient Greek offered European people their culture, architecture, and lifestyle. There are several examples of the modern buildings that have been built based on the Ancient Greek style. The Jefferson Memorial, the White House, and the Second Bank of the United States of America are the best example of such style.
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There other examples of such style are the Oslo Trading Building and the Chamber of Commerce in Georgia. These constructions are the proof of implementing Ancient Greek architectural styles into the contemporary world. It is worth stating that the Greek architectural styles are the most popular among the present day architects. Nevertheless, the Ancient Greek architecture remains popular due to its firmness. These administrative buildings used the Greek architectural styles, especially the columns. Since columns are the symbol of stability, the architects use them in their projects.
The main objective of this study is to identify the utility of the Ancient Greek culture in the present day architecture. For this purpose, a constructive and thematic research has been arranged. Notwithstanding some difficulties in finding the accurate and proper sources, the research has been completed. There are many articles that depict the Ancient Greek culture and its architectural formations. Their innovative techniques of constructing buildings have a great impact nowadays. Consequently, the modern day architects use such styles. The buildings of the Ancient Greek amaze the people and the researchers as well as the modern architects. The example of Ancient Greek architecture can be found in several countries. This study attempted to prove that such method of construction has a role to manipulate the present day architecture. The study has been able to define such role in several ways. These examples are available in various countries such as the U.S.A. and Norway as well as in several other countries. However, there is no scientific proof regarding the issue of Greek architecture that influences the modern architects.
The study discusses the Ancient Greek culture as well as its especial styles and methods of architecture. Some temples were built during the ancient period, while the people used to believe in the deities and miracles.The matter of amazement is that such buildings are still appealing and a matter of admiration to the people of modern age.
The question often raised by the people is how they had been able to construct such building without any technological support. Despite uselessness of such styles, these buildings have special effect on the modern architects. However, the styles are currently used to construct several buildings. Most of the buildings remain as ruins as well as the subject matter of the architectural methods applied in the ancient age. Apollo temple is one of the Ancient Greek structures that has a great impact all over the world. The peculiarities of the Ancient Greek buildings amaze different tourists. The styles and techniques they used in the construction are praiseworthy. Both of the exterior and interior sides attract many people to visits the temple. Several statues provided the temple innovative atmosphere. The materials they used to construct the buildings are also the matter of admiration. Thus, such styles and methods are applicable in the modern architectural systems since those constructions testify that they got more prolonged existence as compared to the present day buildings.
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