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Tourism and its Cultural Impact: Actual benefits or gradual loss of traditional Cycladic architecture?
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This research explores the aspects of interaction between tourism to Greece and preservation of the traditional Cycladic architecture. The investigation is carried out using the tourist gaze and architectural expressive forms of theories and concepts, leading to a conclusion that the inflow of tourists may lead to irreversible changes in traditional meaning systems connected with the Cycladic vernacular architecture. In other words, the paper explores the concept of tourism and its cultural impact, stating clearly whether there are actual benefits or gradual loss of the traditional buildings design on the Islands of Cyclades.
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The vernacular architectural meanings of this picturesque part of Greece are believed to be irreversibly altered by tourism and cultural activities. The traditional Cycladic architecture often represents the elementary form of living in the island. The characteristics of this art objects are being analyzed in relation to the effects of tourism and cultural impact. The phenomenology of the Cycladic vernacular architecture would be presented from a viewpoint providing the clarification of the differences in the tourists and local peoples perceptions of the subject under analysis, which would contribute to the better understanding of socio-cultural issues of the current epoch.
Travelling to various places to explore cultures is an old phenomenon which was primarily considered being for the rich people. Right from the medieval period, religious pilgrimage was the main reason why individuals visited distant places of worship. Nevertheless, in the seventeenth century, young aristocrats took grand tours that were primarily for the educational purposes, which made traveling to be of great interest to the wider part of the European society. This development was supported by the emerging middle class who had the necessary financial resources and time to be able to travel. However, traveling became fashionable simply for recreational purposes with the expansion of railway networks and the extensive growth of the air travel holidays for leisure. Since then, this activity has become part of nearly everyones yearly routine.
The issue of the impact of tourism and related activities on historical artifacts preservation has been one of the controversies of the contemporary time. On the one hand, the notion of preservation is broadly understood to encompass the problems of physical consistency of sites, and art works in question. On the other, the problem of the impact of consumerist tourist activities on the maintenance of cultural meanings associated with these cultural complexes has been barely touched upon in the academic literature. One of the characteristics of the Cyclades is the topology of the rural residence, which often represents the elementary form of residing in the island. Vernacular architecture is usually seen as an inheritance of the local identity, showing identifies a common Mediterranean problem the transformation and consumption of the area which characterizes the coastal zones that attract tourists.
In this case study, I will present a focused analysis of the impact of foreign tourism to the Cycladic Islands (Greece) on the cultural interpretation of the local vernacular architecture, with the aim to conceptualize the changes in phenomenological understanding of the respective architectural artifacts by both local population and foreign tourists visiting the Cyclades. Also, the growing relationship between culture and tourism will be explored, as well as ways in which they have become the main reasons for the regional attractiveness and competitiveness based on the evidence from the Cycladic Islands.
Tourism refers to the commercial organization and operation of visits and vacations to places of interest, usually for leisure, business or recreational purposes. In other words, it is traveling and temporarily staying in localities abroad for not more than one consecutive year. Architecture forms the basis for territorial attraction playing a vital role in the development of destinations across the world, which motivates people from different locations to visit these places.
Although it is important to understand what people do when they travel, it is also necessary to clarify why they travel. There are some key driving forces that make persons take part in tourist activities, such as motivation, perception, and cultural conditioning. For the sake of this research, the cultural condition is being focused on. Some people become tourists because of their desire to connect with cultures. Nevertheless, there is a complex relationship that exists between extrinsic and intrinsic motivations, as well as socialization, environmental and other constraints which all are crucial aspects motivating individuals to participate or not participate in tourism.
Culture is a determinant of a very complicated concept which defines all intellectual activities of a civilization. It is defined as the manifestation of art and other human intellectual achievements which are regarded collectively. It is a major asset for the tourism development and one of the main beneficiaries of the progress of the nation. It is one of the principle factors that create the specificity of a particular place which makes it attractive not only in terms of tourism and investment but also the pride of residents. It is dynamic, expressed through the individual as well as the community, interpreted to each its member, shared with other groups, and transformed to new generations. Culture involves a system of values, norms, beliefs, attitudes and rules. These systems are used to convey the sustainability of the community, and have the potentials to change.
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Cycladic architecture involves the art building designs that were prevalent during the early Bronze Age culture of the Cyclades, Greece, located around the Aegean Sea. It brought about a rapid growth to tourism over the recent years due to its uniqueness and charm. When people visit the Cycladic villages or towns for the first time, they usually have the feeling that they are in an enchanting stage set.
There are rarely public squares in Cycladic towns or villages, and as a rule, public spaces are usually small. The street is always seen as the common area, with its exceptionally well-balanced building facades. The streets in Cycladic villages are usually paved with rectangular flagstones or whitewash-outlined polygonal which are adapted to fit along the outsides of buildings. Also, buildings on the same block are most like to have the same style, with similar features. They are usually two-storied, with staircase located outside as shown in Figure 1 which allows separate access to the upper storey.
During this study, a qualitative research design will be used, and in particular, a phenomenological approach was employed. This technique provides an avenue for co-creation between the participant and the research whereby the production of meaning takes place through a circle of reflective writing, interpretations and readings. Additionally, this method is appropriate for this exploration because it helps to gain more insights about the meanings of participants experiences through the interpretive frameworks. It tries to grasp the essential meanings of things. More so, it involves the process of clarifying, reflective appropriating and the process of making the structure of meaning of the lived experience explicit.
Nonetheless, this method will serve as a theoretical background for understanding and describing the experience of those individuals who participate in the tourist activities. This aspect will be carried out through the use of reflexive journals and interviews, which are able to provide a better understanding of the concept of tourism and its cultural impacts. While the study at large will use a case study methodology, the phenomenological and narrative analyses will be employed as the case may be to elucidate and highlight certain aspects of both individual and shared understanding of the Cycladic vernacular architecture. The comparison with the pre-20th century interpretations of the Cyclades and its architectural world will be presented in order to realize the changes in relevant narratives brought about by the mass tourisms era.
Proceeding from the aforementioned considerations, this case study will be divided into three chapters. In Chapter 1, experiences of two main stakeholders groups i.e. local residents and tourists will be explored, with an aim to compare their diverse narratives of the islands vernacular architecture. Both narrative and phenomenological analysis will be employed here. Chapter 2 will discuss general tendencies with respect to the impact of tourism on both physical and cultural situation of the traditional Cycladic architecture. The key focus of this chapter will be placed on the notion of a tourist gaze (see below) and its socio-cultural implications. Finally, Chapter 3 will deal with possible consequences of commercialization of the Cycladic vernacular architecture, with the main emphasis placed on the core tendencies of this process development. In addition, this chapter will explore and compare possible advantages and drawbacks of the intensification of tourist activities on the Cyclades.
What is more, the categorization of the territorial scale is the first fact-finding aim of the research, and it has been designed in order to better understand the role of the rural settlements in the general organization of the inland area. The exploration is focused on the scale of rural settlement and the details of the individual buildings that make-up the property. This system of territorial organization encompasses various objects that are spread over the inland area and connected by a network of hierarchically organized paths.
In my opinion, such research structure would enable the reader to better understand the complexities of cultural changes brought about by the growth in tourisms prominences for the Cyclades social life and economy. In addition, the specificity of research methodology design will be more efficiently addressed in the manner outlined above.
Vernacular Architecture as the Cluster of Meanings
Vernacular architecture may be operationally defined as the category of architectural artifacts that belong to a place that express the local or regional dialect (Bronner, 2006, p. 23). Here, dialects are understood as specific expressive styles that confer certain inner meanings on the architectural buildings (Bonta, 1979, p. 80). Following Tuan (1989), one may suppose that vernacular buildings reflect particular traditional values and suppositions on the nature of space and of the reality itself as shown in Figure 2 which might tap into the so-called matrix of the culture under consideration.
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Bourdier and Al Sayyad (1989) have regarded vernacular architecture as possessing double nature of the expression of both change and stability. In their view, cultural tradition presupposes the presence of active and passive dimensions which can then be viewed in both synchronic and diachronic aspects (Bourdier & Al Sayyad, 1989, p. 10). While the former refers to the vernacular architectures potential for creating new expressions of the supposedly contextual forms, the latter encompasses its tenacity in preserving the traditional forms independent of their contextual frame (Georgalli, 1991, p. 51). The double (synchronic-diachronic) character of architectural vernacular tradition may then lead to internal tensions within its narratives, in turn contributing to subtle changes in the already formed tradition.
Tuan (1989) has paid specific attention to the contextual constraints that are imposed upon vernacular architecture by its internalized traditional logic. Such aspects as limited choice, restrictions on local materials availability, and geographical and socio-economic factors, exert their impact on local building techniques, perpetuating their architectural tradition (Georgalli, 1991, p. 51). In this sense, vernacular architecture can be conceived as a system of . . . relations of opposition or similarity established between specific architectural forms preserved by the requirements of architectural tradition (Bonta, 1979, p. 80).
In case of the Cyclades, the cultural matrices that influenced the development of local vernacular architectural styles included landscape and climate aspects (Radford & Clark, 1974, p.64). Besides, the historical legacy of the islands successive occupation by the forces of Duchy of Naxos and subsequently of the Ottoman Empire left its imprint on the Cycladic architectures connection with easily defensible locations. Thus, the traditional architectural language of the Cyclades has the deeper contexts than one may initially suppose. In particular, its formal beauty . . . and classical simplicity is directly predicated on the need to provide for the buildings defensibility (Radford & Clark, 1974, p. 64).
Therefore, the case study under consideration will treat the Cycladic vernacular architecture as a specified cluster of meanings that is conditioned by dual tendencies towards change and stability that correspond to different stages of the development of architectural language (Bonta, 1979, p. 80). In this interpretation, the transformations brought about by an increase in tourisms cultural influence on the Cyclades may either be a part of the vernacular architectures natural transformations, or represent an extraneous influence completely alien thereto. This explains the socio-cultural impacts the tourist gaze has on the vernacular architecture based on the authentic effects it has on tourists.
As part of the modern philosophy of the art, one of the assumptions of the vernacular is that traditions tend to dominate, which means that choices are restricted. The presence of vernacular implies that there is a shared social understanding of cultural standards, norms and customs (Bronner, 2006, p. 26). Choices are however apparent in enforcing norms and in performing customs. Tuan (1989) has described the process of tradition as a form of constraint, instead of repetition. On the other hand, based on the linguistic model of vernacular, tradition might be considered as the local saying that gains credit due to the long and frequent use. Also, the idea of expectation, coupled with reliance, imply social trust and connection and as a notion of security in accordance with some descriptions (Bronner, 2006, p. 26).
Moreover, it is suggested that, in the twenty-first century, the experience and skills of the vernacular builders can still have significant impact in the creation of sustainable settlements and buildings that are needed in the future. Vernacular, however, provides significant opportunities to adapt modern and global building practices to local environmental and cultural circumstances, which will enable the creation of forms of architecture that are more sustainable and appropriate, hence, better equipped for the challenges ahead. Nevertheless, builders can use techniques and forms recognized from tradition as time-tested and socially acceptable, and experiences are being altered and applied in the house. In order to be sure the building is not an utterance and it stands boldly on the landscape with complexity as a process and persistence as a form (Bronner, 2006, p. 26).
The Tourist Gaze Concept and Its Implications
As has been observed by Urry (2002), tourist activities are generally connected with anticipation . . . involving different senses from those customarily encountered (p. 2). Consequently, the impact of tourism on the public viewing habits can be basically summarized as the development of a particular type of gaze, to be hereinafter referred to as a tourist gaze. For a better understanding of this concept, the historical development and transformation is considered. This is mainly because the changes occurred in the past couple of centuries, which is the period when mass tourism became widely spread across much of North America, Europe, and increasingly within most parts of the world. Tourism is one of the characteristics of the modern experience since it has become a marker of status in most of the contemporary societies, and it is also considered being necessary for good health. However, this does not dispute the fact that there has been organized traveling in pre-modern societies, especially as the preserve of elites (Kubalek, 2008).
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During the thirteenth and the fourteenth centuries, pilgrimages became a widespread phenomenon which was practicable and synthesized, served by a growing industry of networks of mass-produced indulgence handbooks and charitable hospices. Such forms of pilgrimages often included a mixture of culture, pleasure and religious devotion. By the fifteenth century, regular tours were organized from Venice to the Holy Land. Towards the seventeenth century, grand tours became more firmly established for the sons of the aristocracy and the gentry. By the end of eighteenth century, such events was organized for the sons of the professional middle class. In the eighteenth century, a considerable number of tourist infrastructures were developed in the form of spa towns throughout Europe. Nonetheless, it was noted that, despite the whole apparatus of spa life with its promenades, balls, and its libraries, masters of ceremonies were designed to provide a concentrated urban experience of socializing with dispersed rural elites (Kubalek, 2008).
The concept of a tourist gaze enables researchers to conceptualize the changes in public perception arising out of the changes in the functioning of the vernacular architecture. Whereas previously the Cyclades denizens viewed their traditional architectural styles as basically embedded in their daily existence, nowadays they may regard them as purposefully tuned to attracting tourists due to the formers distinctiveness. Simultaneously, the tourists attending the Cycladic vernacular buildings view them as the curiosities to state their thirst for the unusual. They did not attempt to immerse themselves into the cultural milieu that gave rise to these specimens of architectural art. In this sense, a tourist gaze may be found to contribute to further alienation of both the Cycladic Islands residents and the foreign tourists from the cultural specificity of the islands architectural artifacts (Urry, 2002, p. 94-124).
Tourism is a set of activities which are consciously followed by the travelling individual. John Urry (2002) defines the post-tourist period as a phenomenon of postmodernity. One of the main discourses of the tourist gaze is the question of what is authentic or not authentic, what is fake or real. In this case, the main issue with these two gazes is the question about which one of them is more important, the real or the fake perception. However, this serves as a benefit to the traditional Cycladic architecture because tourists usually have the authentic perception after visiting places to see things for themselves.
The peculiarities of the Cycladic architecture usually provide tourists with authentic and realistic tourist gaze owing to its unique architectural heritage. The architecture and topology of this region always followed the circles of fortune and history, which are inventing and evolving means of serving human need. Regardless the evident relative characteristics, most of the islands of the Cyclades protect, preserve, and develop peculiar features that are not seen elsewhere. Both the residents and tourists usually feel the significance of these special characteristics because of their authentic and unique nature.
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Nevertheless, there is no single tourist gaze, they vary by historical period and social group and are constructed through difference. The gaze in this case does not merely mean that there is no universal experience realistic for all tourists at all times. Instead, it means that the gaze in any historical period is constructed in relationship to its opposite non-tourist forms of consciousness and social experience. In order to make sense of the elements of a larger society with which they are contrasted, one has to consider the typical objects of tourist gaze. Analyzing the cultural impact of tourism on both individual and group level of vernacular architecture, ordinary aspects of social life are being undertaken by individuals who are thought to be in unusual context.
The Cycladic Vernacular Architecture and Tourism
The concept of tradition has been one of the major themes in writing on vernacular architecture most especially in the discourse on the non-western traditions. A good example of the way traditions are continuously re-negotiated through transmission, as well as how individual creativity and authority which play significant role in the dynamic process. Such interpretation allows for the examination of the relationship between the Cycladic vernacular architecture and the growth in tourist activities as the function of the loss of the local architectural traditions authenticity. The patterns of the latter are especially pronounced with respect to the present situation as it is the era of commercial mass tourism that stipulated the transformation of historically significant building into the tourist gazes objects.
The case study under consideration traces a historical evolution of the emergence of the tourist gaze attitude towards the Cycladic architecture. The late 19th and early 20th century travelling guides emphasize Greeces status as a centre of historical antiquities of the European civilization. They did not do so in order to amuse their readers, but to provide them with the understanding of deeper historical and philosophical implications of the Greek culture (Baedeker, 1894; Bent, 1885). This would make such narratives similar to the traditional Hellenistic didactics, with its emphasis on the pedagogical values of the demonstration of historical artifacts.
On the other hand, current tourist gaze-based travelogues and similar guidebooks orient their readers to the notions of exotics and unusual, which do not denote any educational or cultural value by themselves. In this way, the primary forms (Oliver, 1974, p. 8) embodied by the Cycladic architectural traditions are treated as mere architectural and landscape curiosities, denying the tourists an opportunity to delve into their deeper meanings. This limits the cultural value of the Cycladic tourism, preventing the opportunities for greater sharing of the islands historical heritage.
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Subsequently, the case study points at possible means for ameliorating the current situation in this respect. By focusing on the issues of development of cultural awareness programs, certain basic concerns are being addressed that arise in this field. In particular, the problem of informing the tourists of cultural value of the Cycladic vernacular architecture is at the centre of the researchs discussion of these issues.
The external parts of the buildings are simple, unembellished with few windows, as well as a particular type of roof that comes in three different forms: the inclined, vaulted and pitched roof. Also, the buildings form a compact mass, an economic use of curves, irregular aligned houses and walls that slightly slant outwards the ground to give viewers the impression that building is growing out of the flagstone stairs, which are usually rimmed in white, and the islands stark rocky ground that reduces their weight. However, when the painted doors, the windows and balconies are added, which contradict the stark white houses, they produce the complete picture of the Cycladic architecture. Public squares are rare in Cycladic villages, and public spaces in settlements are usually small based on the rule. The street is always regarded as the common area, having exceptionally well-balanced building facades. The streets are characteristically paved with whitewash-outlined rectangular or polygon flagstones.
The interior of the buildings are similar but with little differences from island to island. A platform usually divides the inside space into two equal parts, extending either the width or the length of the whole house. The furnishings are impressive due to their usefulness and aesthetics refinement, and total correspond to the decoration and architecture of the houses. Additionally, the interior decoration includes small cabinets, the trunks for clothing, the stand, icon stand, wardrobe, chests carved out of wood, and a variety of furniture that are built into the walls.
One of the possible consequences of commercializing the Cycladic vernacular architecture is that it provides the opportunity and enables people to discover the cultural and natural resources of the Cyclades, hence contributing to the economic growth of the region. One of the most significant challenges of planners, designers and investors in developing the tourism industry in this region is the means by which tourism can attract people to the region in order to experience vernacular culture, while preserving its cultural and natural values. The vernacular housing units in the Cycladic islands are mostly used by visitors who want to experience a new culture. It is needed to note that, without this vernacular architecture and rural landscape, it is impossible to consider making rural tourism.
People who visit a Cycladic village or town for the first time usually have the feeling of being inside an enchanting stage set because the earlier Cycladic builders worked in similar daring styles which distinguishes them. These craftsmen constructed buildings to adapt not only to the daily needs of the inhabitants but also for the grace and beauty of the landscape with their untainted instinct of folk artists. These features of the Cycladic architecture, however, attract tourists from different parts of the world because most people from other places want to experience and see things they are not used to in their usual environments.
The regional competitiveness and attractiveness of the Cycladic architecture to tourist are usually linked together. Different destinations have to offer some features which do not only depend on economic factors, such as location aspects, e.g. accessibility, or standards of living, but also intangible factors, such as the atmosphere, its general quality of life or cultural heritage. What is more, the main advantage of Cycladic architectural design is that it defines the cultural heritage which attracts people from different places who want to have the unique experience of the art of Cyclades, and also for the economic benefits attached to tourism. On the contrary, the intensification of tourists activities in this region tends to expose their cultural heritage to people from different places.
During most of the twentieth century, culture and tourism were viewed as separate aspects of destinations. Cultural resources were considered being part of the cultural heritage of destinations, which were largely associated with education of the local population, and the underpinning of either local or national cultural identities. On the other hand, tourism was largely viewed as a leisure-related activity which is separated from the culture of the local population and their everyday life. However, this conception gradually changes towards the end of the century because the role of cultural assets in distinguishing destinations and attracting more tourists became more obvious. Specifically, since the 1980s, cultural tourism has been viewed as a major source of economic development for many places of interest.
Culture has since been increasingly employed as a form of tourism product and imaging strategy for destinations which have been integrated into the cultural development strategies for supporting cultural production and heritage. This interaction is seen as one of the most important reasons why the interaction should be maintained. In other words, the combination of culture and tourism is actually a benefit to the Cycladic architecture. Nevertheless, cultural tourism is one of the largest and fastest-growing tourism markets, whereby the advantages of cultural and creative industries are increasingly being utilized to promote destinations.
There is an all-embracing use of culture and creativity to market destinations, adding to the need for distinguishing regional images and identities, as well as a growing range of cultural elements which are being for the branding and marketing of the region. Apparently, culture in its general form, is likely to strongly figure in the tourism product, and promotion of most regions that relied on their natural assets for their attractiveness. Also, the most essential effect of linking tourism and culture together is to develop an effective interaction between stakeholders in the two sectors.
In most cases, the challenge associated with the sectors is that there are different approaches to their operation which are: the non-profit motive and the profit motive, market and public, etc. Any platform that tries to bring these sectors together must be able to identify their common interest in attracting people to the regions where they are based. In any case, the main difference is that the cultural sector is more concerned with residents who are usually seen as citizens or audience, while in the tourism sector, visitors are usually seen as clients or customers. Although this difference can be overcome by making people understand that tourists should be considered as being part of the cultural audience. The point is that most of the responses from the participants indicated that tourists are always considered as strangers, and so these feelings and perception result in the differences.
In order to maintain a good standard, regions will have to become more innovative in the way they develop, manage and market tourism and culture. This will help in extracting the full range of benefits from the relationship for people to visit, reside, invest and work in the region. However, the area will have to address issues like (a) challenges of funding; (b) creating sustainable relationship and avoiding the damage of cultural resources by tourism; (c) integration of tourism, cultural and national/local development strategies; and (d) intercultural dialogue and multicultural societies.
Finally, as a result of this research, it could be summarized that tourism has significant cultural impacts on the lives of people. Furthermore, because of the relationship that exists between culture and architecture, there are actual benefits of tourism attached to the traditional Cycladic architecture. To be more precious, the nature of building of the Cyclades attracted most tourists who desire to have new cultural experience.
The interpretation of the cultural impact of tourism on preservation of the traditional Cycladic architecture has been proceeded from the point of view of the meanings management, which has enabled the author to take into account the achievements of post-modern research methodologies. During this research, a qualitative study design has been used, and in particular, a phenomenological approach has been employed. This approach provides an avenue for co-creation between the participant and the research whereby the production of meaning takes place through a circle of reflective writing, interpretations and readings.
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It has been the appropriate methodology for this research because it has helped those working within this methodology to gain more insights and understandings about the meanings of participants experiences through interpretive frameworks. It has tried to grasp the essential meanings of things. More so, it has involved the process of clarifying, reflective appropriating and the process of making the structure of meaning of the lived experience explicit. It has presented a view to understanding the differences in the tourists and locals perceptions of the latter, which contributed to the understanding of larger socio-cultural issues of the current epoch.
The Cyclades were a good field of study due to their double-face nature: audacious inland areas which are usually difficult to access by trying to maintain the precious evidence of the traditional architecture, and the opposition between the coastal zones where there is a reinforced concrete that is inexorably swallowing the traditional settlements around the ports. The aforementioned duality of the Cyclades provided the desired features for the better outcome of the research (Carocci & Circo, 2013, p. 47-54).
The issue of the impact of tourism and related activities on historical artifacts preservation has been one of the main controversies. Of course, the notion of preservation is broadly understood to encompass the problems of physical consistency of sites, artifacts in question. Conversely, the problem of the impact of consumerist tourist activities on the maintenance of cultural meanings associated with these cultural complexes has been barely touched upon in the professional literature. However, the relationship between tourism and its actual benefits or gradual loss in the traditional Cycladic architecture is very important and needed to be understood clearly.
For a better understanding of this concept, the basic terms have been discussed earlier. Tourism refers to the commercial organization and operation of visits and vacations to places of interest, usually for leisure, business or recreational purposes. Culture is the manifestation of art and other human intellectual achievements which are regarded collectively. Cycladic architecture is a manifestation of the architectural designs that were prevalent during the early bronze age culture of the Cyclades, Greece, in the Aegean Sea which existed from approximately 3200 BC-2000 BC.
This case study has been divided into three chapters. In chapter 1, the experiences of two main stakeholders groups i.e. local residents and tourists, have been discussed, with an aim to compare their diverse narratives of the islands vernacular architecture. Both narrative and phenomenological analysis were employed. In Chapter 2, the general tendencies with respect to the impact of tourism on both physical and cultural situation of traditional Cycladic architecture have been considered. However, the main focus of this chapter has been on the notion of a tourist gaze and its socio-cultural implications. Finally, Chapter 3 has explained the possible consequences of commercialization of the Cycladic vernacular architecture, with the main emphasis placed on the core tendencies of this process development.
Vernacular architecture may be operationally defined as the category of architectural artifacts that belong to a place expressing the local or regional dialect. In case of the Cyclades, the cultural matrices that influenced the development of local vernacular architectural styles included landscape and climate aspects. As has been observed by Urry (2002), tourist activities are generally connected with anticipation which involves different senses from those that are customarily encountered (Urry, 2002, p. 2).
Thus, the impact of tourism on the public viewing habits can be basically summarized as the development of a particular type of gaze, which is hereinafter referred to as a tourist gaze. Also, the concept of tradition has been one of the major themes in writing on vernacular architecture, most especially in the discourse on non-western traditions. The subject of the study is a good example of the way traditions are continuously re-negotiated through transmission, as well as how individual creativity and authority, which play significant role in the dynamic process.
As a result of this research, it could be concluded that tourism has notable cultural impacts on the lives of people. What is more, because of the relationship that exists between culture and architecture, there are actual benefits of tourism attached to the traditional Cycladic architecture. The point is the nature of building of the Cyclades attracted most tourists who desire to have new cultural experience.
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