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Critical Analysis of Scholarly Literature: Annotated Bibliography
The research topic is The Influence of Modifiable Behaviors on Aging. Many elderly experience modifiable behavior that negatively impacts their lives. Therefore, modificable behaviors raise concern among many researchers who aim at making the lives of the aged healthier and more comfortable. The paper investigates the aspects of modifiable behavior that influence the elderly. The study will address the following questions:
- What factors influence the modifiable behavior of the elderly?
- How does modifiable behavior affect the aged?
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Agrigoroaei, S., & Lachman, M. E. (2011). Cognitive functioning in midlife and old age: Combined effects of psychosocial and behavioral factors. The Journal of Gerontology, 66B(1), 130-40. doi: 10.1093/geronb/gbr017.
The paper has no formal theoretical framework; however, it does not eliminate the value of the study. The research is an example of an informal theory grounded in the context of the study that examines the joint protective contribution of behavioral and psychosocial factors to cognitive functioning. The authors present the explicit theoretical assumptions concerning cognitive functioning in the midlife and old age which shape the study.
The current research does not presuppose the use of empirical data. Unfortunately, the paper omits the perspectives of analyzing the findings of other investigators. The research data were collected from computing a composite protective measure of the MIDUS representatives. The authors used a qualitative research design though some elements of the quantitative approaches were also used. It would be beneficial for the researchers to use an interview as a qualitative method as it will enable to collect more reliable facts. The information discussed in the article is influental and valuable for my future research. It will be used to examine and compare the behavioral factors that influence the seniors. In addition, I will analyze the results of the current study with my future results to find relevance between the combined effects of behavioral factors.
Artaud, F., Dugravot, A., Sabia, S., Singh-Manoux, A., Tzourio, C., & Elbaz, A. (2013). Unhealthy behaviours and disability in older adults: Three-City Dijon cohort study. British Medical Journal, 347, f4240. doi: 10.1136/bmj.f4240.
The article includes a theoretical framework for unhealthy behavior and disability that presents an explicit feature of the source. It uses a classic theory that enables to analyze the received results, namely the unhealthy behavior and disability in older adults. The assumptions made by the authors shape the research, making it a cohort study.
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The researchers excluded a thorough literature analysis that could have provided more theoretical information on the topic under investigation. In addition, it would enable to compare the received data with the findings made by other researchers. The population-based cohort study uses both qualitative and quantitative research approaches. A statistical analysis, questionnaire, and assessment questions are used to collect the data. The methodological design predicates on scientific assumptions that provide a comprehensible understanding of the unhealthy behaviors in older adults. The results and perspectives discussed in the article are reasonable and informative. They are valuable for my future research as they enable to compare the data taken from different regions.
Jak, A. J. (2011). The impact of physical and mental activity on cognitive aging. Behavioral Neurobiology of Aging, 10, 273-91. doi: 10.1007/7854_2011_141.
The current research presupposes the use of a classic formal theoretical framework. The assumptions made by Jak shape the study as it analyzes a variety of literature sources, enabling to make reliable conclusions. The research data are collected through the empirical research, and it contributes to the research authenticity. Hence, the author uses only qualitative research methods that provide a thourough explanation of the underlying assumptions and concepts related to the topic under investigation. However, the implementation of an interview or a questionnaire as a research approach might be used to counter-check the received data.
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Hence, the study is built on animal literature providing a critical summary of the constantly growing research body. This valuable source will be used in my future research as it provides a deep analysis of the existing literature that investigates the influence of physical and cognitive activities on cognition and brain. Moreover, it analyzes the limitations that exist in the literature sources and enables to reveal the directions for the future research.
Lin, K. M., Chiou, J. Y., Ko, S. C., Tan, J. Y., Huang, C. N., & Liao, W. C. (2015). Modifiable lifestyle behaviors are associated with metabolic syndrome in a Taiwanese population. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 47(6), 487-95. doi: 10.1111/jnu.12163.
The article uses a classic formal theoretical framework making it explicit. It is a cross-sectional study that aims at exploring associations between modifiable lifestyle behaviors and metabolic syndrome among the Taiwanese adult population. The authors investigate the theoretical hypotheses concerning the modifiable lifestyle behaviors and their relation to the metabolic syndrome. The article provides a short characteristic of empirical data; however, they do not influence the research results and are not taken into consideration while making conclusive assumptions. However, they could serve as a basis for the comparative analysis. Lin et al. apply both qualitative and quantitative research approaches to collect the data for analysis. Moreover, they use univariate logistic regression, multivariate logistic regression, and descriptive statistics to analyze the received data and to determine the main factors associated with metabolic syndrome. It is possible to improve the methodological design through the analysis of the secondary sources.
The results and statements observed in the article are reasonable as the authors use a large sample population thus increasing the research reliability and validity. In addition, the paper is seminal and insightful as it enables to compare the data received from different countries. I can apply the results of the current research expanding the notion of modifiable behaviors in different regions across the globe.
Larkin, M. (2015). Brain and behavior are modifiable, even as we get older. Retrieved from https://www.elsevier.com/connect/brain-and-behavior-are-modifiable-even-as-we-get-older
The article does not use any formal theoretical framework. However, it provides assumptions of modifiable behavior and brain when people become older. The hypotheses substantially shape the study on aging stereotypes. Larkin does not use the global statistics and primary data sources. The current study analyzes the findings of two researchers working on the investigation of modifiable behavior among the elderly. The article does not report on empirical data and uses qualitative research approaches. The author does not conduct personal research but thouroughly analyzes the findings of others presenting his viewpoint. It is possible to improve the methodological design through the analysis of empirical sources, comparison of the received results, the use of statistics, and others. Although Larkin does not use any interview or questionnaire to collect the research data, the source is reasonable and informative as it provides valuable suggestions and findings related to the topic of investigation. I will apply these results in my future research paper as empirical data.
Myint, P. K., Surtees, P. G., Wainwright, N. W. J., Wareham, N. J., Bingham, S. A., Luben, R. N. … Khaw, K. T. (2007). Modifiable lifestyle behaviors and functional health in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk population study. Preventive Medicine, 44(2),109-16. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2006.09.007.
The article uses a formal theoretical framework that adds explicit features to the source. It is an example of an informal mini-theory grounded in the context developed in relationship to modifiable lifestyle behaviors and functional health. The authors present theoretical assumptions of the association between functional health and modifiable behaviors of the elderly. The research uses empirical data to provide a deep insight into the problem under investigation. Myint et al. exclude the theoretical considerations concerning the general category of the aged making emphasis on individuals who suffer from cancer. The current research design uses mixed research methods to collect the data for analysis. I find that the article has a well-planned methodological design that should not be improved. Moreover, it will be used as an example for my future research. The results and perspectives examined in the article are seminal, insightful, and reliable due to the variety of sources used, strong methodology, and primary sources of information. I will analyze the findings of the current study in my future research. In addition, I will review the sources used by the authors as they provide essential information.
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National Assosiation of Chronic Disease Directors (DCD) (2008). The state of mental health and aging in America. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/aging/pdf/mental_health.pdf
The paper uses a formal theoretical framework. It does not envolve any theories as it constists of two issue briefs that aim at providing a useful tool for assessing the mental health of the elderly in the USA. The authors make the assumptions about the assessment of mental health shaping the study and providing a variety of empirical data. Moreover, the article provides suggestions concerning the ways to improve the mental health of the analyzed population. In addition, it presents extended information about the issues discussed and does not require any improvement in terms of theoretical considerations and methodological design. The study analyzes empirical data and discusses the questionnaire conducted to get necessary information. Hence, it uses mixed research approaches to collect the data for analysis. Moreover, the authors use the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to assess the mental health of the older population in the USA. The article will be used as a basis for my future research as it reviews many useful literature sources and provides an indepth analysis enabling to clearly understand the key issues associated with the mental health of adult population aged 50 and older. The authors provide statistics presented in figures that will be also used.
Wijeratne, C., Reutens, S., Draper, B., & Sachdev, P. (2011). Psychiatric disorders in ageing. In M. C. Pardon & M. W. Bondi (Eds.), Behavioral neurobiology of aging (pp.243-69). Heidelberg, Germany: Springer Berlin.
The study uses a formal theoretical framework to analyze psychiatric disorders in aging. The authors use different theories to investigate the behavioral neurobiology of senescence. They make theoretical assumptions about the epidemiology of cognitive aging, modifying behavior, behavioral neurobiology, and psychiatric disorders in aging. Wijeratne et al. provide the analysis of aging and relevant conditions through the use of the secondary data sources. Hence, the source presents the research conducted by numerous scientists who use qualitative, quantitative, and mixed research methods to investigate and analyze different topics related to the modifiable behavior of the older population. They include neuroanatomical changes in cognitive aging, cognition in older adults, age-related behavioral decline, psychiatric disorders in aging, and others. The study unites many relevant researches which provide a deep exploring of the issues of aging and modifiable behavior. Moreover, it has a qualitative methodological design that does not need any improvement. The results and ideas investigated are valuable and insightful. They will be used in the future research paper as a theoretical basis related to the cognition in aging, modifiable behavior, behavioral neurobiology of aging, and others.
Synthesis of Literature
There are many literary sources which cover aging and related processes. The general interest and concern of the public about this issue has enabled to conduct many researches. There is a possibility to get volumes of data that help to develop the gerontology research, shape theories, and enhace the creation of new theories which effectively guide in creating the emprirical work. Nevertheless, although gerontology presupposes the use of a life-course theory, activity theory, disengagement theory, continuity theory, biologic theory, and many others, not all analyzed sources use them.
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Some researchers base their studies on the formal theoretical framework using an informal mini-theories grounded in the context of an issue under investigation. They help to detect and explore the relationship between aging and related processes. A theory should integrate the experience of a person or individuals with the context of a large environment; however, not all studies presuppose such an environment. The development of a theory in the field of geronotology is an ongoing process that requires the expansion of different elements. Therefore, researchers use mini-theories or avoid applying them in their studies.
Hence, a great number of the analyzed sources have obvious theoretical and methodological insights due to the scopes of the research. However, there are still some researchers who show a lack of methodological design. It can be concluded that there is no unique theory in geronotolgoy. Therefore, it indicates the need to develop new theories or create a unified one to address different aspects and environments of the field. During the aging process, people live in different economic and social contexts. At the same time, they undergo different events which influence their life experience which results in the suggestion of new theories.
Proposal of Something New
I would recommed to put a greater focus on the life-course theory and activity theory as they enable to get a clear insight into my future research topic. For example, the activity theory enables to investigate the psychosocial aging processes making emphasis on the importance of ongoing social activity. The framework takes into consideration different aspects of peoples life, including culture, motivation, history, environment, and complexity of life among others. At the same time, a life-course theory is a multidisciplinary paradigm which addresses the structural context and social changes that happen in the life of the aging population. This theory presupposes observations from different disciplines such as biology, demography, sociology, history, economics, and others. Moreover, it assists in establishing the connections between the life of a person and the context.
If I were to expand my work on the topic, I would make an attempt to create a mini-theory that would shape the research and ground in the context developed in relationship to modifiable lifestyle. If I could do any kind of study I wished, I would deeper investigate the factors that influence modifiable behaviors of people who belong to different cultures and ethnic groups. Moreover, I would focus on the environmental and social aspects of this process. Therefore, a comparison of the received data would enable to obtain reliable results.
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