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9.11 Terroristic Attack in the USA
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The September 11, 2001, terroristic attack in the USA became one of the biggest tragedies in the history of the present civilization. The attack has killed thousands of innocent people. The citizens of the United States will never forget that day, and the deep wounds in the hearts of the U.S. residents are impossible to cure. Besides, the event became a worldwide tragedy; many countries decided to participate in humanitarian and military assistance for the United States by sharing their deep sorrow.
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Nevertheless, the tragic event has influenced the entire world, and it did not concern only some moral and ethical aspect but it was also related to global, economic, social, and military problems. The 9/11 event has resulted in war with terrorism. The United States started large-scale military operations against Al-Qaida in Afghanistan and Iraq. It brought about very serious changes in the consciousness of people from all parts of the world. The September 11 events shocked not only all the Christian world but also the Islamic nations, as they suffered the consequences as well. Although the 9/11 attack was the national tragedy of the United States, it changed the whole world by declaring the war on terrorism.
History of the Tragedy 9.11
The 9/11 events changed not only the history of the world but also changed the global power position of the United States and resulted in the reorganization of the political interests of the country. The cruel reaction of Al-Qaida in New York was caused by the set of various premises and motives. Although American authorities did not make it clear who the perpetrators of the terroristic act were, the leader of Al-Qaida – Osama bin Laden was recognized for his contribution to the tragedy of 9/11 and threatened the United States with the continuation of the attacks. The terrorists accused the United States of their participation in the operations against Muslims in Israel, Afghanistan, and Somalia. The general reason for the act was the global power of the United States in the Middle East. The total number of people who died during the attack is 2,977, and those were all the innocent victims (9/11 Memorial, n.d.).
According to the statistics, it can be assumed that it was actually the biggest terroristic attack in history due to the number of victims who lost their lives. Thus, one ordinary working day in the United States suddenly became similar to the hottest point of the battlefield or even more terrifying. 19 terrorists hijacked the planes and directed them towards the buildings of the World Trade Center complex and the Pentagon. The buildings collapsed due to the big fire the accidents caused. The hijackers of Flight 93 had an intension to destroy the White House or Capitol, but it crashed on the field near Pennsylvania (9/11 Memorial, n.d.). The heroic passengers of Flight 93 saved the capital from the possible tragedy. The event of 9/11 became not only the national tragedy but also the day of general mourning; it was reported that the representatives of 93 nations were killed that day. Although the terroristic act was unexpected and caused a lot of panics, the authority of the United States had quite an adequate and effective reaction.
The Reaction of the United States and Overcoming the Consequences
The reaction of the U.S. government towards the 9/11 attack resulted in the proclamation of the war on terror. The administration of President Bush conducted the most effective actions with the purpose to overcome the tragedy, but the biggest problem was the security of the nation after the attack and to avoid the threats of further terroristic actions. The president made all the efforts to call the entire world to help the United States in overcoming the terrible tragedy and help the country resist terrorism. The famous speech of the President presented the desire of the United States to involve other countries in the problem of the United States, as he compared the event with the attack on the heart and soul of the civilized world (US Department of State, 2009).
The actions during the first 100 days post the tragedy was the most useful, as the authorities of the country built the worldwide coalition for terroristic acts control. In addition, the president has sufficiently increased the security of the United States. In general, the domestic security expenditures were estimated at 20$ billion (US Department of State, 2009). The United States declared that any kind of terroristic support by a person or organization would be regarded as a hostile position. It is important to admit the humanitarian assistance of the government for the families of victims. The reaction of the United States was taken in two directions: the financial and the military one. The financial sanctions resulted in destroying the financial network of terrorists. The military actions were presented as the beginning of the war with terrorism. The United States started the operation “Enduring Freedom” on October 7, 2001 (US Department of State, 2009). The operation destroyed the training camps and military bases of Al-Qaida. The global military actions in Iraq and Afghanistan were criticized as possible attempts for revenge. However, the United States conducted additional assistance to the civilians and established a special regime in the United States to protect the Muslims. Nevertheless, the reaction of the world was not single-valued.
The Reaction of the World
It is difficult to describe the way the world reacted towards the tragic events and the ways to deal with the consequences because the countries took different positions, though each country expressed its commiseration and shared the sorrow with the people of the United States. There were some doubtful conceptions of the community because some people believed that the authority had to know about the attack, as the Central Intelligence Agency should have been informed about it. Moreover, the President Administration used the terroristic act as the excuse for the war in the Middle East, since it was profitable for the United States. Nevertheless, the level of destruction and thousands of innocent victims could not stop worldwide participation. Moreover, the statistic data confirms that 136 countries offered some military help and assistance in the struggle against terrorism (US Department of State, 2009). Thus, the Enduring Freedom operation has been conducted with the additional military participation of the United Kingdom, Australia, and Japan. Moreover, Australia provided a certain order in domestic affairs and tried to explain the reasons for the 9/11 event. According to its politics, the main problem was the lack of information that was gathered by the intelligence agencies. Consequently, Australia increased the work of intelligence with the purpose to predict the further possible attacks (Grono, 2008).
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Many countries have assisted the United States at the beginning of the financial war against world terror. Specific actions of the financial limitations and sanctions took place. In fact, 196 countries supported that attempt, and 142 have acted to freeze the terror assets (US Department of State, 2009). Nevertheless, the financial operations that were consequences of the tragedy have resulted in the economic collapse in the world and many countries suffered from it. Thus, the entire world could not stay indifferent toward the 9/11 events. It is necessary to admit that many countries established Memorials with the purpose to commemorate the tragic events in the United States. The 9/11 attack has changed the United States in all the spheres.
Changes in the United States
It is impossible to distinguish all the changes that the country went through after the attack in September. However, people felt the beginning of the new era in the United States is coming. The citizens of the United States understand that the history of the present life in the country was divided into two periods – before and after the 9/11 act. The terroristic attack made people feel more than the deep sorrow, but also a terrible attack of panic, as the country provided a special order to be ready for the further acts of terrorism. Moreover, the financial collapse increased the already existing fear and panic. The physiological researches in New York and across the country confirmed: “Attack resulted in a wave of stress and anxiety in the USA; 8-10% of the respondents in New York had symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, and 40% of people around the country had depression” (Blackwell, 2011). However, the most interesting aspect of that fact was that the statistics had been conducted 10 years after the attack. The feeling of fear was closely connected with the beginning of the war on terror. The United States increased its expenditures for conductin of war in Iraq and Afghanistan. Over 6,000 of the U.S. soldiers were killed in the war (Shah, 2013). In addition to it, the statistics informed that the costs of war, which were $4,4 trillion brought the country to the edge of bankruptcy (Shah, 2013).
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The reaction of the U.S. society was also quite predictable because the terroristic attack had caused the total hatred of the Muslim people. They could be attacked just on the streets. However, the United States conducted a deep reformation of the security system in the country. The government made a decision to reinforced the activity of the Intelligence Agency and decided to implement new security guidelines. In addition to the above-mentioned actions, the system of the national airlines had to be reorganized, because the terrorists could have easily hijacked the planes. Therefore, the authority conducted serious changes in the evolution of Airlines (International Foundation for Protection Officers, n.d.). Nevertheless, all the changes that have been made influenced not only the United States but the entire world.
Changes in the World
Improvement of the security and intelligence system across the world was the first step for the protection of the Western countries form the possible terroristic attacks. However, multiple financial limitations and military operations caused certain tension in the economic sphere. Jack Holland presents quite depressing statistics – the conflict with the Al-Qaida’s terrorists was estimated in 1,3 trillion, 8000 coalition troops had been killed (2013, p. 2). The Western countries were ready to participate in the new worldwide conflict. The organization of the coalition opened a new page of history and increased the political tension in the world, which could possibly provoke the beginning of World War III. Moreover, the violent and quite aggressive politics of the United States toward the Muslim countries changed the attitude of the majority of countries across the world towards the United States.
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The United States’ actions in Iraq and Afghanistan damaged its reputation badly. It led to a mixture of political, social, and economic reactions in the world. In addition to it, deep changes happened not only in the Western countries, the Muslim nationalities suffered for it most of all. The 9/11 events resulted in the killing of Muslims or people in the Western countries who just seemed to resemble Taliban terrorists by their appearance (Shah, 2013). Nevertheless, these attacks of the innocent Muslim people had no substantial grounds and could be compared with the September 11 attack. The United States has faced worldwide criticism due to the issue of Muslim killings and the aggressive politics of the Bush Administration. The situation in the world became quite strained because many were afraid that some countries could use the conflict as an excuse in the struggle for global domination in the Middle East, which could even lead to the global war. Consequently, the world faced the cardinally new phenomenon of war on terrorism.
The War on Terrorism
The war on terrorism was an unknown notion for the majority of people, as it happened at the beginning of a new era when the country declared the beginning of the war with something quite abstract. Simon Keller tried to examine the phenomena of a new kind of war. He indicated that terrorism was a feeling and the conflict with the feeling was a ridiculous and contradictious phenomenon (Keller, 2005, p. 53). Nevertheless, it is hard to accept the idea of Keller, because the terrorism appeared as a result of violent attacks and had no connotations with feelings. However, Keller (2005) gave detailed explanations for his conceptions: “Terrorism is not a sort of thing that can literary wage a war” (p.55). It is possible to make a conclusion that the war on terrorism is a hybrid kind of war, which has some hidden interests and uses a comfortable excuse. Consequently, the United States used the war in the Middle East with the purpose to increase its influence on that territory and its global power, in general. It gave the grounds for some countries to suspect the U.S. 9/11 event as a planned action of the Pentagon with the intention to provoke the worldwide conflict and involved some nations to the hybrid type of war.
However, this idea is the result of some conclusions, and it seems to be too cruel to accuse the suffered country of such actions. It is true that there are many other ideas concerning the problem of war on terrorism. For example, Holloway admitted that the American quasi-imperial role provoked resistance (2008). This idea is the most adequate because the wide-scale imperialism could possibly provoke a new type of conflict. Besides, the world had been already the witness of such a phenomenon during the Cold War, when the collisions of two imperialistic countries resulted in the new hybrid type of war, which could be easily transformed into World War III. Thus, the United States declared the unlimited and amorphous war on terrorism (Holloway, 2008). Nevertheless, the war took place in Iraq and Afghanistan.
The War in Afghanistan
The United States conducted powerful revenge on the territory of Afghanistan with the purpose to kill the terroristic leaders and destroy Al-Qaida. The question of the United States revenge brought some critics around the world, as many people did not support the idea to act violently for violence. In addition, the citizens of the United States accused the President of his radical actions, because the war brought serious losses for the country and people did not want to participate in the total cruelty or die for it, protecting the global imperialistic interests. The attack of 9/11 killed 3,000 people and 3,500 civilians were killed in the result of the U.S. revenge (Shah, 2013).
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The problem is the U.S. actions cannot be comprehended as an act of terrorism. Moreover, the tragedy in Afghanistan was not widely presented. The Operation Enduring Freedom extended U.S. counterterrorism and many Muslim countries sided openly with the United States in the global war on terrorism (Rabasa, 2004). However, Afghanistan took an active part in the support of terrorism, because it was the location of Al-Qaida. The aggressive Islamic group of the Taliban ruled the country. Al-Qaida was a powerful organization of Islamic extremists. The leader of Al-Qaida Osama bin Laden had declared the beginning of terroristic attacks on America with the purpose to interrupt an American interference into the affairs of the Muslim world. The radical actions of the total revenge in Afghanistan destroyed the training camps of the Taliban and killed many initiators of the attacks. Their leader Osama bin Laden was killed later. The military operations in the Muslim World made the relations of the United States with some Islamic countries worse, because of the suspicion in the support of terrorism. Consequently, their many facts that prove that events of 9/11 had a significant impact on the world’s history.
The Impact on World History and Significance of the Event
The 9/11 attack changed the world order and presented to the world a new phenomenon of terrorism. After the events in the United States, the world started a new page of history, as it caused the collision of the Western and the Muslim worlds. Many people changed their conceptions of politics and were faced with the global fear of unexpected terroristic attacks. The notion of global fear or panic became even more vivid in the airports nowadays, because it is prohibited to even talk about bombs or terroristic acts there. However, the event actually did bring some positive reformations because Airlines became more reliable, improving their systems of security. The name of Osama bin Laden is now associated with the ultimate aggression and cruelty. Moreover, it has transformed into the symbol of terrorism and reflected evil connotations, resulting in panic and horror, especially in New York City. The world history faced the new type of unlimited type of war – the war on terrorism. The changes in world history appeared in the global unprecedented depression, which resulted in the extension of alcoholism and drug addiction since the citizens tried to reduce their sorrow and grief. However, the evidence confirms that the number of church visitors also increased greatly. Thus, the event changed the consciousness of society. After the attack, contemporizing of the 9/11 victims became a worldwide tradition.
The nations had an exceptional experience in observing the events of September 11, 2001, in New York. It is possible to make a conclusion that the significance of the tragedy is obvious because it was a turning point in the development of a new order in the United States and the entire world as well. It was the beginning of new history when the declaration of the hybrid war with terrorism achieved a symbolic meaning – the consolidation of the Western world against the common enemy. The nations had the possibility to admit a new approach to the struggle for the imperialistic power. Nevertheless, many people revised their preconceived attitudes toward the Muslim nations, because the Islamic religion should not be generalized as a terroristic organization. Besides, many facts confirmed that the suffering of Muslims was also significant, though the media did not present this information as a worldwide tragedy. Anyway, the tragedy of 9/11 cannot be forgotten, like any other historic event that caused numerous deaths and it will stay in the hearts of people as a deep wound forever.
Thus, September 11, 2001, was the day of the inhuman terroristic act, planned by the aggressive Muslim organization of Al-Qaida. The planes slammed into the World Trade Centre and the Pentagon building. The terroristic attempt to destroy the White House collapsed because of the heroic actions of the 93 Flight passengers. The sorrow of the September 11 event became a worldwide tragedy because the representatives of different nations were killed that day. The actions of the U.S. government during the first 100 days post the event resulted in successful reforms in the process of struggle with terrorism. The United States authorities initiated some serious sanctions of financial limitations, which caused some economic problems in different countries. The events had launched the new type of war on terrorism, though it provoked a variety of critical thinking concerning the President Administration’s actions. Many countries accepted the war in Afghanistan as the beginning of the new global conflict and an attempt of the United States to reinforce the imperialistic influence in the Middle East. The war on terror actually became a new phenomenon, so that many scientists tried to define the target of the war and made a conclusion that it was unlimited, hybrid, and amorphous conflict, which changed the whole history and presented a new level of leading the war for the global power.
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