Content of the policy
The one-child policy was introduced in 1978 .At it’s initial stages it only applied to first-born children and aimed at lessening social, economic and environmental problems in china .The Chinese government refers to the policy under official translation of family planning policy. It limits urban couples to only having one child though it gives exemptions to some cases such as rural couples, parents without any siblings themselves and ethnic minorities. According to Fei xiaotong’s text “From the soil” Fei was different from other scholars who wanted to replace Chinese culture with western principles .Fei focused on the existing cultural and social-economic conditions .He warned the Chinese society against radical reforms. Provincial administration imposes fines and taxes on the basis of family’s income. Commissions have been established whose responsibility is to mount awareness to the masses and conduct registration and inspection on behalf of the government. Despite these measures many people have continuously been giving birth to more than one child.Inrural areas however people are allowed to have a second child if the first child is a female or has disabilities but with a spacing of three to four years.
Advancement of the policy
The policy is somehow contentious because both outside and within china because of the way in which it has been executed and the distress about negative social and cultural consequences. Statistics from the Chinese Environmental Authorities have shown that the policy reduced between 250 and 300 million births since it was executed in 1979 to year 2000and 400milllion births since its implementation to year2000.A research conducted in 2008 by Pew Research centre shows that 75%-77% support the policy. The national Population and Family Planning Commission publicly announced that the policy will remain in force for yet another decade1n year 2008.In another press briefing the Deputy Director to the Family Planning Commission yet announced that the policy would remain unaltered up to at least year 2015.In march 2011 however the government of china evaluated the policy and provided for concern to allow couples to give birth to a second child.
Impacts of the policy to china’s demography and lives of ordinary Chinese people
One-child policy has reduced the number of young people in china .There is fear that china will not be able to sustain its economic growth given that there are few young people to work. Savings rates of ordinary Chinese people have increased .With one child ordinary people have few expenses which allow them to invest in addition this has reduced the overdependence on children during old age by parents thus they save more money It has also reduced the demand for the available resources .It has also reduced the problem of unemployment by maintaining a steady supply of labor .These are incentives to economic growth.
Consequences in urban and rural areas
In urban areas singleton daughters have benefited from the one-child policy .As opposed to the traditional china system where parents had little to invest on a girl child ,girls enjoy parental support since there are no brothers to compete with. The policy has seen gender equality and because of low fertility in mothers they can secure well paying jobs and can provide support to their own parents.The policy has as well reduced competition and exploitation of resources in urban areas. There will be no people to provide labor in rural farms .Over-indulgence by parents in the only one child will be witnessed which will have a negative effect on their discipline and lack of adaptive capabilities.However, one-child policy will provide better health care in women and reduce risks associated with pregnancy.
Impacts to the traditional Chinese society according to Fei Xiotatotong
In the text “From the soil “ Fei Xiaotong a sociologist describes the different organizational principles of Chinese and those of western countries giving essential features of both societies. According to him the basic unit of Chinese rural society is the village. He says that people in the rural area do not know any other kind of life apart from the rural one they are used to. People live together because the pieces of lands that each family has are relatively small thus they live together so that they can be close to their fields. Living together is a source of security .People work together in activities such as irrigation and cultivation of lands. Because land is shared equally among male children small communities eventually grows into bigger villages. Thus the One-child policy threatens the differential mode of association and the family structure in traditional Chinese society as it interferes with the size of communities, security and togetherness in handling jobs. In addition he holds that people in the society know each other and that there is no need to ask twice for help. Society and individuals are one. He asserts that sociology distinguishes between two societies, one belonging to people living together and the other one representing that which has no interactions - belonging to strangers.
My opinion on one-child policy
From my own point of view one-child policy is convenient especially to less developed countries which are confronted with problems of unemployment, economic growth, overexploitation of resources, gender inequality, overpopulation and poor health care.
The growing population in less developed countries is the major cause of high levels of unemplopyment.Measures that aim at reducing the level of population such as family planning contraceptives and one-child policy are the only solution to unemployment.
One-child policy is an incentive to economic growth in the sense that it reduces demand for natural resources and maintains a steady supply of laborers in the market.
Overexploitation of resources
One-child policy slashes competition for the available resources and ensures economic development i.e. the ability of the present generation to meet their needs without terminating the ability of the next generations to meet their own.
Countries where there are no limit on the number of children are confronted with the problem of male domination. Most well paying jobs are taken by men while most ladies remain even uneducated. To deal with this problem one-child policy is the only solution.
Poor health care
Most households with more children are faced with access to good health care and nutrition especially ordinary people. Trimming the size of household to one child is the best solution ever to good health care and nutrition.
A society that is characterized by high levels of population and less jobs to support the growing population resorts to crimes such prostitution and robbery. To curb these crimes the one-child policy is the best alternative. Thus from the credible list of benefits I would recommend the one-child policy