One of the mainly significant developmental concerns that adolescents face is the ability to achieve an established and healthy logic of self-government. This entails the ability to make one’s resolution and handle the life errands without being reliant on other people. So what ensues in the family structure as children grow-up and commence to do something more autonomously? In societies as diverse as those in China and the United States of America, inconsistency flanked by parents and children on affairs regarding self-governance become much more frequent early in adolescent and progressively decline in occurrence all the way through the teen years.
Parents sense that they have less control on the adolescent children as for the most part of the time, the children usually hang out with their peer friends, criticize family standards, and become itinerant with the aim of finding out what perhaps lies beyond certain acts. This more often leads to family crisis, a condition that puts more pressure on the parents to put and instill more stringent rules. The worst case of it however, occurs when parents drop all rules and leave the whole managing chores to the adolescent kid to handle and take responsibilities of all her actions. Some families have enhanced ending with their teenage children where they take the responsibility to pay attention and still continue showing love to the children by instilling good values in the children lives.
Parental acceptance of teen’s decision
Dealing with teenagers has over time been a difficult issue for parents to deal with. Adolescents are most likely to become appropriately sovereign, achievement oriented and well-adjusted if their parents be acquainted with and grant their greater need for independence (Gray, 1999). Some research depicted that it’s the role of the parents to enforce a well consistent set of policies, while at the same time involving teenagers in a healthy conversation and decision on issues relating to self- governance and constantly showing them the support they require despite the conflicts that might ensue between the teenagers and the parents.
Young adolescents who are granted much independence to make their own decisions appear to be more poorly adjusted than the adolescents whom the parents exert more control. Parental independence support is more successful not when it promotes independent decision making, but rather when it offers choices to the adolescents and helps them explore sundry alternatives to come out with an independent decision from the guidance driven by their interests and values.
This captivating permutation of parental acceptance and the prototype of flexible behavioral management that is neither too negligent nor too off-putting, is an solid approach that is time after time linked with healthy developmental endings in several contexts. It is mainly when parents fail to go along with a teenager’s push for independence, and in the case where the parents become more controlling that teenagers experience personal anguish and rebellion sets in. Parent’s role in the teenage decisions should immensely involve total guidance as opposed to depriving them the independence they require. This hence should not be interpreted to mean assigning much freedom which can lead to spoil of the children.
Researchers have recommended that emergent emotional autonomy for the period of adolescent, characterized by the ability of the teenage to make independent verdicts and the resultant disagreement with parental opinions involves a rising individuation form and decreasing emotional reliance in their parents. However, emotional dependence is obtain in the within the perspective of parental support and recognition. It has been found that knowledgeable forms of autonomy for most adolescents develop with enduring bonds and reasonable parental conflict (Kitts, 2005). It is therefore advisable for parents to offer corrective support to their adolescent children in the places that they may go wrong and do the acts that are never in accordance with their ways of lives.
Being more restrictive to the adolescents can even cause them to do worse things. In case an adolescent does a bad action, it becomes good for corrective mechanism to be administered on the person as opposed to ill treatments on the teenagers. The parents should not forsake the teenagers and their decisions, but should offer the accepted norms, even in the areas that they might have gone bad.
Knowing that certain actions can have unsympathetic effects and being conscious of the resultant consequences, of engaging in a certain conduct have not had a sturdy long-term restraint effect on adolescents. Over time, there has been a projection of m any risky behavior that adolescents engage in. Adolescents are lured in to the risky behaviors either through peer pressure or the curiosity to know what lies beyond some of the action that they abstained from since their childhood. This way, they are lured into the risky behaviors so as to experiment on some actions.
There are many risky behaviors that adolescent engage in. they include; sexual relationships at early ages, participating in gang violence and involvement in drug and substance abuse as the major and the rampant ones in the world today and whose offsets is usually at the early years.. These risky behaviors have brought devastating effects such as dropping out of schools, death, and unwanted pregnancies at early ages to name but a few.
Drug and substance abuse in adolescents
There is a tension for adolescents to be more addicted to drugs than adults. Alcohol and drug abuse has become a growing problem all over the world with much of this originating from the adolescents. Most teenagers do not turn into drug taking with an expectation of developing substance abuse problem, but they become engaged in the act for fun and to satisfy their adolescent curiosities. Most of them while engaging in the act are usually not aware of the negative impacts of the action and even those who might be aware of the consequences tend to ignore them all together. The biggest consequence that arises as a result of the drugs is the addiction.
With the set of the consequences, the parents are usually very fast at noting the changes that occur to their children. These changes or rather the consequences of drug abuse can be a drop in the overall performance in school, poor health conditions, memory loss experiences and uncooperative attitude with instances of being rebellious most of the time. Among the adolescents, involvement in drug abuse bring with it devastating effects, some of those named above.
Abuse of drugs and alcohol can also alter friendships, as teens start to deviate from previous friends who don't support their drug exercise and start to connect with colleague drug addicts who will promote and support the joint drug use. Parents should be exceptionally concerned when teens abandon one set of friends for a different, particularly if they are reserved about the latest peer group. The majority teens that are passionate won't spot a predicament with their actions or their drug use. Drugs compose in them a good feeling, and a technique to alleviate the tension of school, troubles at home, variance with friends, and other stresses of growing up.
Sexual relationships at early ages among the adolescents
There are an overwhelming number of adolescents who engage in sexual relationships. This number has been drastically increasing due to the influences that emanate from peer pressure and peer friends. Parents usually become much concerned with the information of their children's involvement in the early relationships. There are many effects that emanate from these actions, as many of the teenagers drop out of school mostly due to unwanted pregnancies that occur, and due to the fear of the consequences, the alternative to many of the victims is dropping out of school.
Parents have over a long time been encouraged to have family discussions concerning the bitter results of the unwanted sexual relationships. With this done often, peer pressure over the adolescents has taken precedent and all the discussions many times receive a dead ear. the media is known to impact negatively to the continuing of these behaviors. The internet has significantly too led to the increment in the number of these behaviors.
Suicide rates among the gay, lesbians and transgender adolescents
Researchers have shown that death rate among the lesbians, gay and the transgender adolescents is relatively high than amidst the general population. This acquires a linkage from the heterocentric traditions and the institutionalized homophobia. worse of it all, depression and drug use has over the years increased especially from the move by various states to pass laws that are viewed towards discriminating those people who become involved in the these gay, lesbianism and transgender practices.
For several reasons, little can be said with sureness on the issues involving the suicidal rates in the lesbians, gay and the transgender adolescents. There has been a conclusion that most mortality data fails to incorporate sexual orientation (Gibson, 1989). However, based on the significantly escalating rates of suicide among the lesbians, gay and transgender adolescents and the comparative seriousness of their suicidal attempts, it becomes evident that the LGB adolescents and youths experience higher suicidal rates as opposed to the non-LGB peers.
Risk and protective factors can be used to explain some of the suicidal behaviors in the lesbianism, gay and the transgender adolescents. The risk factors that may contribute to the suicide options among the lesbian, gay and transgender adolescents include the lack of a social support either from friend and families, mental disorders, loss of a good relationship with people and to the extreme end the easer in the accessibility of fire arms. On the other hand, the protective factors that can play part in accelerating the suicidal rates among the lesbians, gay and the transgender adolescents include lack of the skills needed for one to cope with life, lack of medical of counseling services and weak family connections to name but a few.
Although the majority of adolescents who are clinically depressed or who use substances such as alcohol do not attempt or do not face death through suicidal processes, both depression and substance abuse are risk factors for suicide among many of the adolescents and also other grown up people as well. Other studies have established that internalized homophobia and conflict regarding sexual orientation to a significant extent are also known to contribute to the suicidal rates among the adolescents involved with the practices involving lesbianism, gay and transgender.
Depression among the gay, lesbians and transgender adolescents
Depression can be caused by several factors. Such factors can be biological, psychological or even social. Living and interactions in a homophobic and heterosexist society brings about immense amounts f stress and depression among the gay, lesbians and the transgender adolescents. These people, relatively to the heterosexual equivalents are subjected to greater risks in suffering from depression and mental health problems. Once the depression sets in, there is a tendency by these people to turn into drug abuse with the aim of trying to forget all the depression and the stress that they are involved in, with no idea that the indulgence in the drugs could be an avenue for more troubles.
Depression among the lesbians, gay and the transgender adolescents has been seen to emanate from the social negation of the behavior. Most societies and states in the United States do not advocate the behavior. This has extended to the opposition from many families. When the adolescent’s behaviors end up not accepted by even their families, depression sets in as the sufferers see themselves as being in their world of their own, in which their behaviors are not accepted. The adolescents then become torn in between their behaviors and the family way of life. The aftermath of it all is depression that forces some of the adolescents in this way of life to opt for suicide.
Homophobia of oneself gender confusion
Homophobia is a term used to refer to a range of negative attitudes and feelings towards lesbians and transgender people and behavior. It can also be used to describe the irrational fear, hatred, aversion to or discrimination against people who are homosexual or the same sex attracted people. Transgender refers to persons whose gender identity and/or expression is inconsistent with cultural norms about their biological sex.
Lesbians, gay and bisexual (LGB) adolescent groups, experience significant suicidal actions relative to any other youth group. Studies that have been conducted in many years have showed that the number of LGB who are involved in suicidal events is more than 60% in comparison to the non-LGB. While limited information is available about the suicidal behavior among the transgender adolescents, it is plausible to hypothesize the transgender adolescents, in common with the LGB adolescents, have elevated risks and lower protective factors and higher rates of suicidal behaviors.
Risk and protective factors help explain suicidal behavior and inform program and practitioner approaches to reducing suicidal behavior. LGB adolescents generally have more risk factors, more severe risk factors, and fewer protective factors than heterosexual youth. For example, LGB youth often lack important protective factors such as family support and safe schools, and more LGB young people appear to experience depression and substance abuse. In addition, there is risk unique to LGB youth related to the development of sexual orientation, for example, disclosure at an early age raises risks.
It would be difficult to overstate the impact of stigma and discrimination against LGBT individuals in the United States. Stigma and discrimination are directly tied to risk factors for suicide. For example, discrimination has a strong association with mental illness, and heterosexism may lead to isolation, family rejection, and lack of access to culturally competent care.
While LGB youth are at higher risk for suicidal behavior, some groups of LGB youth are at particular risk: those who are homeless and runaway, living in foster care, and/or involved in the juvenile justice system. Although all youth in these settings are vulnerable, many LGBT youth experience multiple risk factors and have fewer supports than other youth.
The risk factors that apply to youth overall also apply to LGB youth. Kitts’s review of the research literature (2005) confirms this. Kitts concludes that the elevated risk of suicide attempts among LGB adolescents is a consequence of the psychosocial stressors associated with being lesbian, gay, or bisexual, including gender nonconformity, victimization, lack of support, dropping out of school, family problems, suicide attempts by acquaintances, homelessness, substance abuse, and psychiatric disorders. While heterosexual adolescents also experience these stressors, they are more prevalent among LGB adolescents.
Although LGBT youth in general are at higher risk for suicidal behavior, certain subpopulations of LGBT youth are at especially high risk. For purposes of planning suicide prevention services, LGBT youth who are not living at home, homeless and runaway youth as well as adolescents in foster care and juvenile justice settings, face similar challenges. The issues of family conflict and rejection, cycles of abuse and neglect, and juvenile criminal offenses are often closely related, and many young people may experience all of them. Aspects of family dynamics, such as lack of support, conflict, and rejection as well as connectedness, play an important role in suicide risk for LGB youth. Abuse within the family; whether psychological, verbal, physical, or sexual, elevates the risk of suicidal behavior by LGB young people.Family conflict is also a contributing factor to homelessness of LGBT youth.
Families in conflict relating to a youth’s sexual orientation may benefit from family therapy and other forms of support to reduce family stress and the likelihood that LGBT adolescents will leave the home. Programs serving homeless and runaway youth may be more effective if they work to ensure that relevant staff members are informed about the particular risks of LGBT youth—risks that include more frequent victimization, higher rates of highly addictive drug use, and more sexual partners.
The Committee on Adolescence of the American Academy of Pediatrics has developed guidelines for pediatricians working with LGB youth that are also appropriate for other types of health care providers. These recommendations include raising issues of sexual orientation and behavior with all adolescent patients, since many LGB youth will not bring up their sexual orientation voluntarily. The guidelines recommend that the provider give factual, current, and nonjudgmental information while maintaining confidentiality. Professionals who feel unable to provide care to LGB youth are advised to refer these patients to other providers.
While little research exists on transgender people and suicidal behavior, it is reasonable to hypothesize that transgender youth, in common with LGB youth, have elevated risk and lower protective factors for suicidal behavior. Transgender youth often exhibit gender nonconformity and are presumed by others to be LGB even if they do not identify as such. Transgender youth also experience high rates of rejection and physical and verbal abuse at the hands of their parents. Grossman and D’Augelli summarized the experiences of transgender youth as indicated in recent research, victimization by their peers, negative parental reactions, substance abuse, and family violence, as similar to those of their LGB counterparts, who have higher rates of suicidal behavior.
Treatment through counseling
Inthe past years, the attitudes of mental health professionals have shown a positive change towards the gay, lesbians, bisexual and the transgender adolescents. For example in 2005, a study found that 58% of psychologists supported a gay-affirmative stance in therapy compared to the revealed 5% in 1991. Despite all these, there has been some report by the health professions regarding the lack of immense focus on the gay, lesbians, bisexual and the transgender adolescents. Training providers to sensitively serve the lesbians, gay, bisexual and the transgender adolescents may improve the treatment outcomes. Some options that are incorporated in the course of the training include the sexual orientation sensitivity training to enhance a good and established understanding of the issues that revolve around the LGBT adolescents. This also encompasses the educational programs that are initiated with the aim of ensuring that the quality care is provided to the people caught up in the LGBT adolescent issues.
Treatment for homosexual clients should be no dissimilar than any other client. In terms of mood disarray, nervousness disorders, relationship distress, trauma, and sexual issues, homosexual clients present at about identical rate as their equivalents and treatment should not be any different. Research has, however, shown that depression is considerably higher among gay adolescents and that the suicide rate is twice over their straight counterpart. Suicidal ideation, depression, and anxiety are also higher among those who have not accepted their sexuality or who struggle for acceptance with friends and family because of their sexual direction.
In counseling the lesbians, gay and the transgender youths, it is basically fundamental for the counselor to involve the proper monitoring and the supervision to the persons involved. It is equally recommended that the comfort height, experience and the competence of the staff serving the gay, lesbians and the transgender adolescents be assessed carefully before and after the training.
A substance abuse treatment program aimed at reforming the life of the person involve d in the practices of gay, lesbianism and transgender should be done effectively. A substance abuse treatment provider, who is competent and with the perfect knowledge of the LGBT person, can effectively administer the counseling to the LGBT, The person who is also well versed with the actions that need to be carried out on the LGBT patients can better be suited in starting the healing journey and the life reforming help of the client and take him or her to better life heights that will be free of the practices of the LGBT.
Family connectedness, support from other adults, and school safety are all characteristics that are amenable to change, and would be appropriate targets for interventions aimed at protecting young people from self-harm. Improving the ability of parents and other influential adults to connect with and support adolescents grappling with issues of sexual identity may be a critical component of mental health promotion and protection for these young people.
It is equally essential to also Promote organizations that support LGBT youth, such as Gay-Straight Alliances and Parents, Families, and Friends of Lesbians & Gays. These recommendations will help not only to reduce the disparate rate of suicidal behavior of LGBT youth but to promote the health, safety, and inclusion of LGBT youth as visible and empowered members of our communities. This will substantially help to reduce suicidal behavior among LGBT youth can have the additional benefit of reducing the social stigma and discrimination against LGBT people in our families, schools, and communities. Our ultimate goal is not to merely help lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth survive but to support them to thrive as healthy, productive, and vibrant youth welcomed and empowered in their communities.
It is highly recommended that reformist treatment be accorded to the lesbian, gay and the transgender adolescents so as to make them turn from their evil and unacceptable ways of life. Parents should play a great role in trying to show them the disadvantages of the behavior and this should be carried out with much affection, as most of these influences are seen to emanate from the peer pressure and the demands that push many adolescents to deviate from the norms to fulfill their adolescents’ quenches.