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Where the Iceberg Profile Began


Organizations are faced with pressure from the public in order to become successful and one way of achieving this is to use suitable characters in the organization. Coaches are skilled to know the physical features required in order to succeed in the ground. Nevertheless, they do not contain the necessary skills that will help them know the mental factors that have been known to cause important results on the performance of the athletes. The quantification, implementation, and identification of these factors can result to the organization's success. The discussion will be based on the factors that will result to the success of the athletes, the measures to be taken on the factors, and how the factors can be used I making decisions.


For many years, about twenty years, there has been an increase of attention on the athletic field. Coaches are depending on judgments that are informal for instance, motivation from the athletes and the aggression level in order to find out the possibility of succeeding. Athletes are categorized to be mentally sound and people who are functioning effectively. Although, studies shows that the athletes have the affinity to be less worried, most talkative, most violent and independent, and most oriented in achieving than the other people. (Peterson, Trousdale &

Weber, 1967). Many researchers have been conducted in order to identify the mental skills essential for success. The information that describes includes comparing the most-skilled and the least skilled in order to identify the differences. The information is helpful in the program’s selection. After identifying the features associated by groups that succeed, there is the possibility of identifying the factors that are supposed to be practiced by the athletes in order to succeed in the future. This shows that the skills, activities, and knowledge that are essential for an athlete is obtained in this manner.

Skills, abilities, and knowledge related to success:

In Morgan’s study on the issue of biographical information, it is one example of literature that analysis the differences in skills among the athletes. Though the differences were not looked at statistically in order to come up with the differences that was present, the end results shows that it is an important element to look for the difference when choosing a method of selecting athletes in the field. The study was carried out among the athletes who participate in the team, because most of the athletes suffer due to bad relationship between the team member and the coach. Attempts from other researchers suggest the use of data from psychology with other information foresee person selection in the athletic teams. Morgan (1980) uses the profile of mood states (POMS) and information about a person past performance and mental features to get a success rate of ninety per cent of who will make the team succeed or who will not.

The POMS is made of sixty five checklists of adjectives that measure six aspects of emotion such as fatigue, emotion, vigor, anger, depression, and confusion. This is what is called an iceberg profile that is used by Olympic distance runners, oars men, and wrestlers. It is characterized of high vigor, low tension, fatigue, depression, anger, and confusion. POMS were initially developed to be used in the clinical field but it was the used in sports to measure the psychological disturbance. This instrument has helped in selecting athletes effectively leading to success. The psychological measurement gives vital information but the information is limited on for prediction purpose when the other factors are not included. These factors are such as past conduct and psychological factors. In 1980, Morgan became the first person to reflect on the past performance of the athlete and the mental features leading to high percent of success rate in identifying the correctly individuals in the team.


Since the athletic field is very competitive, it is now very important to make the right choices when picking a team so that it may be successful. The demonstration on the significance of considering mental features and past performances are shown and how it leads to success in a team. Though Morgan’s research is a short-term forecast, it confirmed that a program that uses power can relate mental factors and the past performance of an athlete. The anxiety to succeed makes the athlete and managers look for ways of succeeding in a competition and this is by making the correct process in selecting.

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