As a person matures, he/she has different personal needs that they wish to access in order to satisfy their needs; these needs can be found under the Marslow hierarchy of needs. For instance, there is a need for someone to be academically empowered before they can enter the job market and start a family. The cognitive development process however incorporates three main processes; biological, social and economical.
The Biological Process: The biological process focuses on the physical changes that the body of an adolescent goes through as they grow
Socio – economic Process: The environment in which the person resides in determines the type of lifestyle that they will lead. The children born in the up market areas will adapt to the lifestyles of the residents in those areas whereas those born and raises in the inner cities will also take on the life of the area. The financial status of the guardians / parents of a child as he/she grows up defines how the future life of the kid will be, for those who survive on less than $1 a day, chances are most likely that their children will lead a poor life (survival), on the contrary, the children raised by parents who are financially stable will definitely enjoy most of the niceties of life.
Middle Childhood / Early Adolescence Stages
Most children in the middle childhood / early adolescence stage are aged between 5-13 years. One of the notable cognitive development processes that they go through is the biological process. During this stage, the child has become more mature and as a result they detach themselves from the parents and become “independent”, most of them however join peer groups and they spend most of their free time with these peers. The physical appearance of the child also changes, i.e. girls start experiencing the menstrual cycle and other physical changes, as for boys most notable change are changes in their physical appearance. It is during this stage that the children became sexually active and experimental, it therefore safe to state that the sexual orientation of the child becomes more defined at this stage of development, the kid is in a position to tell whether he/she is straight (by being attracted to opposite sex) or if he/she is gay / lesbian (by being attracted to members of the same sex). It is therefore important for them to be guided and advised on sex related matters and on positive morals and ethics. The responsibility of guiding and counseling the child during this stage has to be taken up parents, teachers and any other social or religious worker that has access to the child.
According to Cherry, there is a wide range of relationships that take place during the psychosocial development in children; however when it comes to then middle childhood stage, there are two main developments and they include identity Vs confusion, industry Vs inferiority (Cherry, 2010).
Identity Vs Confusion: This mostly occurs during the adolescent stage when the child has a problem trying to figure out who they really are and what they want in life (identity crisis). The guidance that a child gets plays a major role in helping him/her find true identity, for those who are not guided end up having an identity crisis which affects their growth and development.
Industry Vs Inferiority: The industry Vs Inferiority can be seen through the child’s social interaction with his/her peers and school mates. The encouragement and praise that the child gets after tackling a project will give him/her a sense of pride and feel she has achieved something; this is in contrast to the child who is not fated since this makes him/her feel inferior.
There are six main forms of psychotherapy that most children go through as they grow and each of this builds a child in a certain way. They are non directive and structured or focused play therapy, abreactive and release therapy, psychoanalytic play therapy and cognitive behavioural approaches therapy (Le Page, 2010).
Non – Directive Play Therapy: The non directive play therapy is a form of therapy that allows a child to personally find a solution to the difficulty situation that he/she is facing. This form of therapy is non judgmental and it makes the child feel “empowered” accepted and loved.
Abreactive Play Therapy: This therapy is used to help the child overcome some common negative emotions such as fear, hostility and anger. This therapy is more direct as compared to the non directive play therapy where a guardian may “force” the child to re-experience the fears and as a result they are able to overcome them.
Psychoanalytic Play Therapy: This therapy focuses on helping the child to overcome his/her inner conflicts and anxieties through play. It is also this same therapy that is used by psychotherapists when dealing with abused and traumatized children. The therapy was pioneered by Anna Freud and Melanie Klein.
From the three sections covered above, the lesson that one can learn is the different stages that are involved in the cognitive development process; biological, social and economical processes. Another area that has been well covered is the psychosocial development and focus here has been on the middle childhood development stage.
In conclusion of the study, different forms of psychotherapy have been discussed and the spot light has been on three of the six forms of psychotherapy. Understanding the different forms of psychotherapy will allow a parent or counselor be in a better position to be aware of the child’s behavior and way of life.
In the article Features of Adolescents byProf. Michael Kerfoot of Manchester University, United Kingdom, the author has explained the different physical, emotional and psychological changes that most adolescents go through as they grow. It is important that these changes determine how a person will turn out to be as they approach adulthood.
Therefore being a sensitive stage of growth and development, the much attention should be given to this young people and help them turn out to be better citizens. The importance of this article in relation to the course is that, by understanding this features and changes that the go through then one will be in a better position to understand the category that they belong into the child development cycle.