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Psychological Approaches

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Psychology of behaviour is an important aspect in the current world, more so in the determination on how human beings behave. This paper looks at two contrasting approaches namely, behavioural approach and cognitive approach. In considering behavioural approach, it takes the form that the behaviour that is acquired is either learnt through the operant condition or, the classical approach irrespective of whether the behaviour is regarded as normal or abnormal. This implies human being would usually learn through interacting with the world. Human being is known to associate their neutral stimulus when there is a reflex action that is automatically given, such as happiness and fear. In his works, Albert was conditioned to fear whenever exposed to rats. The aspect of learning via the given consequence of a given situation is referred to as operant conditioning.

This is evident when a given behaviour is either appraised or punished Wolman (1965, pp122-124). Whenever a given behaviour is appraised it would instil in a given individual whereas when it is punished it would it may disappear. A kid who has been applauded for behaving well for instance being polite would always exhibit good behaviour even without thinking about the prevailing condition Krishnan (1974, pp76-77).  The operant conditioning may also be exhibited in a case where an individual is punished may be due to eating a lot of food. This individual may start eating les food and develop poor eating habits.

The behavioural approach would concentrate on the actual study of the behaviour of individuals and ascertain why certain individuals behave in a certain manner. It doesn’t employ the use the mind but by the actions of the body Astleitner (2007, pp56-58). The mind might be processing various activities but what would be performed is what this approach is interested in Marrowlin (2007, pp187-190). Behaviourism approach is seen to incorporate the scientific aspect in its study. This is as a result of the measurement that, are supposed to be conducted so as to ascertain why a particular number of people behave in a certain way. This criterion focuses on the behaviour which is exposed and, may be influenced. This approach suffices well when the dependent and the independent variables are to be considered in the determination of the library characteristic of human beings in the laboratories. This makes measurement about learning procedure to be possible Brett (1996, 77-79). It is seen to be present phenomena and, does not focus on the history of a given individual. This gives an upper hand in the nature of human being in that they are most probably unaccountable of their past abnormal behaviours.

When trying to cope up with such behaviour, the approach has to make sure it corrects the abnormality. If this fails, the behaviour would be prone to come back after a given duration. The set back that this approach assumes is that it takes human behaviour to be sort of mechanical. It also presumes the human behaviour emanates from the stimulus response which has been perceived as an attitude which is reductionist. This approach tends to assume the cognitive and emotion nature of human being. Studies have however indicated that learning cannot be entirely studied if the cognitive aspects are assumed the way this approach analyses behavioural characteristics. An individual would not behave in a certain way due to the knowledge of the consequences beheld ahead of the person.  The dispute that normally arises is the fact that when administering this therapy of behaviourism the subject is not informed. This occurs to cases where the therapy of Aversion is being administered the client would be subjected to discomfort and even at times pain.

This technique is not scientific as it believes the scientific approach is always subjective and tends to recycle on the mentalist of various individuals Hayes (2008, pp176-178). It believes the scientific perspective limits the criterion on the basis that the information given may not be sufficient or may not be the really cause of the happening of a given scenario. This is because any individual may come up with the mode of thinking depending on the prevailing condition. Behaviourism technique employs sampling the actual data basing on how different individuals behave. This gives emphasis on environmental impact in which it affects the behaviour of individuals rather than depending on the instincts. This approach stipulates human behaviour arising due to the learning process Johnson (2006, 154-158). The simplified scientific approach deduces was in the sense of altering the environment of a given organism and deduce how that particular organism would behave. This led to the study of response, extinctions reinforcement and the stimulus.

In this approach the actions are seen to be in a form of reflex where by individuals would behave in accordance to the surrounding environment or the circumstances. This approach presumes that all the human behaviour that are possessed is learned as the information we have is being processed. This takes place under the influence of the classical operant conditioning criterion. This approach believes human being would always learn while interacting with the environment. This would take place in either learning through association in the classical conditioning or through the given consequences in operant conditioning Watson (1970, pp34-35). This is in cooperated also through the experience that is gunner when we observe what happens around us. This theory presumes that a given individual would behave aggressively when the person sees another person behaving that way. This would instil into the mind of the person and would have the tendency of behaving a similar way when provoked.  This is more pronounced especially where the abnormal behaviour tends to reward the person practicing it. The theory presumes that individuals would always imitate the behaviours of adults as compared to that of children.

Barlett studies reveal that an individual may not have two emotional aspects that have the same inters occurring at the same time. This calls for step by step learning in which it employs systematic desensitisation James (2007, pp62-66). In order to reduce anxiety, there has been a number of techniques employed such as using the responsive technique where an individual responds to questions and, placing and individual through a certain form of training. Human beings are seen to learn from the models that they observe in the basic development processed. This learning criterion led to the emergence of various theories that concerns the behaviour of mankind such as the maladaptive, the abnormal and antisocial behaviour. It is seen to be deterministic Piers (1972, 98-103). This is because an individual would fell satisfied only when they are unaware on the principles governing that particular situation.

Cognitive approach

There is reductionist in this approach with whereby the mind is seen to contain the feedback mechanisms that brings about the aspect of rational thinking and behavioural change. This entails the processes that take place in the mind. This approach puts its basis on the capability of the mind in processing and performing various activities.  This approach eliminates the involvement of the physical action s, but focuses on the neoru underpinnings behind the actions Harriman (1963, pp 45-46). It is in the realm on how different individuals perceive the environment around them. This means that the behaviour that various individuals portray is as a result of the behaviour that is culminated from the mind. In contrast to the behavioural approach, this approach is more of scientific and has to take place in the laboratory with few occasions where it may be observed such as in dyslexia. The synthesis focuses more on the specific criteria and not the general one James (2007, 58-59). In the current world, technology has made this study to be more efficient more so with the introduction of computers.

The processing of the computer to perform its function may be compared with the human brain functionality O'Doherty (1975, 67-68). The only difference that emanates is the fact that, human brain has several factors that influence it such as the environment, cultural factors and the ability to  be involved in the past experiences Krishnan (1974, pp123-125). This keeps the performance of human brain to be higher as compared to the performance of the computer. Cognitive approach presumes that when an individual has disordered thinking such as illogical errors, being irrational in thinking and having a negative attitude may lead one to develop a similar habit Neisser (1967, pp45-56). The consequences that follow would be being too anxious and having stress and depression. In this approach the nature of cognitive is believed to have being acquired through a learning process. This means it may also be unlearned. An individual is capable of reasoning out ill behaviour and put corrective mechanism that would see an individual changing the behaviour Alderman (1974, pp173-174). Social theory stipulates that, when an individual thinks in a rational way, that particular person is bound to be excited and perform exemplary.  Contrary thinking of negative realm would make an individual to develop an abnormal behaviour.

It is seen to be a deterministic approach from the systems theory that, this approach relies on the present activities of a given individual. It leaves out the past activities such as depending of the memories that occurred as a result of the unconscious mind. This has an upper hand as more precise outcome may be obtained as human past activities are always vague and may have a lot of contradiction Gillham (1981, pp28-32). The only exception is when the individual has a certain medical condition such as too much dopamine is when the past may be put into consideration in this approach. This approach focuses in a narrow sphere that may lead to un conclusive outcome as there are various aspects that affect human behaviours.

It is a scientific approach as because there has to be an analysis of performance of the sensory and, the perceptual events that relates to it. There has to be a hypothetic-deductive criterion aimed at studying the effects of the IP systems. In addition, there has to be use of the introspection as an analysis of the gathered data.  His would require various individuals to be involved in a test in which case even their IQ ahs to be tested Giere (1988, pp 105-109).

Piagnet works finds that human mind is capable of sensing what surrounds the environment. A kid would learn to walk due to the existence of such situation and the volume conservation. Studies, have also been conducted in the laboratories where various aspects of human beings may be tested such as the ability to solve a problem, the perception of a given individual and one’s memory Brunner (1973, pp234-256). The study has been done that gives the relations hip between thinking and the kind of language. The way language may be related to the behaviour of a given individual.

The weaknesses that be fells this approach is the incapability of it in cooperating various spheres of life Kohler (1992, pp 78-79). In addition the human mind is subject to variations especially when whenever there are leading questions that are directed towards a particular individual. This has been employed as being one of the best technique governing the behaviour of a given individual basing on the fact that one is able to take control of his or her own trait and shape through shaping of an individual’s thinking. This approach is based mainly in the assumptions that people make while thinking.

This approach presumes that the individual thoughts would have an impact in the way a person would feel or react to a given situation. This occurs when an instance has occurred. How an individual behaves emanates on how that action has been thought about. This approach is usually briefer as compared to other approach ion ascertaining human behaviour Forshaw (1977, pp231-235).  This approach takes the attribution theory in which individuals would always try to find out why certain individuals would behave in a given manner. This would make the individual generate their own conclusion basing on what is thought to be the most likely outcome.

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