The Great Pyramid of Giza is one of the seven wonders which remain in ancient world. It was constructed using around 2 million stone blocks of 2.5 tons in weight. The pyramid is the tallest structure in the world with 481 feet. The pharaoh Khufu built the pyramid and his brother Hemienu supervised it. Hemienu supervised construction process of King Pharaoh and his tomb was constructed adjacent to the pyramid (Bonwick 48).
Theories explaining construction of pyramid
Many theories explaining construction of the Great pyramid have been described. According to a Greek historian known as Herodotus, the pyramid was built following steps. He explained that stones were laid on the bottom and remaining stones were raised using short wooden planks machines. The first machine raised the block stones to top on which the second machine received the stones. The third machine was advanced hence made transportation of stones easier from the base to the top of the pyramid.
It is a recent theory from the French architect known as Jean Pierre Houdin. He suggested that the ramps were used though not the way Egyptologists theorized it (Paula126). Basing on Egyptologist Brier and Houdin, they suggested that an architectural genius known as Hemienu constructed the monument. They suggested that 25,000 Egyptian construction workers built the monument in two decades ago. It was stated that Houdin used computer graphics to visualize and study the pyramid in a way construction would be. He proposed on how the huge granite blocks and lime stones were raised. The pyramid was constructed starting from inside out and around the mile long ramp cork screwed to the top. It was aided using drawings and photographs to determine the structure.
External Ramp Theory
It has many arguments and some light fisticuffs. The first theory suggested that some kind of technology was employed and most scholars’ suggested that a ramp of sorts was used. It lacked evidence that a contraption has ever been located. The theory argues about the ramp without bend stretched directly from the ground floor up to the sides of the pyramid. However it has weakness because an incline of 8 degree is steep and the Egyptians could angle their ramp and move the stones blocks. The ramp could not reach the highest point of pyramid which riches a mile long. The mass of structure could almost resemble the pyramid itself. This theory if used could have taken a lot of time to construct the pyramid e.g. 20 years. The ramp was described to be spiral in shape stretching its way towards every side of the pyramid as it grew up. Spiral theory is not feasible but it has flaws. The spiral ramp surrounded all pyramid corners which were vital to the complex. During ongoing process calculations were made to ensure the structure results into a precise point on top. The pyramid trunk would have been buried under the ramps during construction period. This theory was criticized because the surveyors were not supposed to utilize four angles, ends and foot line of the pyramid for their computations.
The second theory under external theory revolved on Herodotus’ machines. It was argued that crane like device known as Shadouf was used during construction of pyramid. It was suggested that hundred of this cranes were used to lift blocks up to the top of pyramid. However the theory was criticized because it involved tremendous amount of timber yet Egyptians did not have forests to cut trees and produce timbers. It was very expensive because large amount of timbers for ship building was imported from Lebanon. Another issue was on where to place all the cranes because the pyramid masses were likely to decrease in dimension higher up to the great pyramid. The blocks sometimes provide 18 inches of standing room which was not sufficient room for cranes to raise large and heavy stones. The crane theory was criticized because it could not explain how the Great Pyramid blocks were raised (Sweeney 143).
Internal Ramp Theory
This theory was presented by a French architect known as Jean Pierre Houdin and in his 7 years life time was devoted in making computer models of the pyramid. He also supported that a ramp was indeed to raise blocks on to top of the pyramid. The lamp also needed to exist from inside the pyramid. The theory explains how the blocks were raised up straight from bottom of third of the pyramid in an external ramp. However the ramp was shorter hence could not reach the top since it was made of limestone blocks. Inside the pyramid a second ramp was constructed on which the stones for the upper two thirds of pyramid would be raised. This was still in the bottom through which an external ramp was built. The internal ramp begins from the bottom with about 6 feet and approximately 7 percent. After the lower part of the pyramid was completed the ramp was put into use. The design of the internal ramp was determined depending on the interior part of the pyramid (Malkowski 129).
This theory explains how the combination of sleds, amps and lifting devices were used to accomplish pyramid building using effective labor system and unknown techniques. It was criticized that the ramps could have been volume of 1 560 000 cubic meters and height of 146.6 meters in order to move stones up and into the pyramid. The ramp would only marvel in and off itself if it was a large project as the pyramid (Makowski 126).
The external ramp method leaning on one face of pyramid was technically possible and the method had complications and problems which were unadvisable for reasons. Instead of feasibility study the construction process based on calculation before construction would take place. There is no clear and well informed technology that was used in the construction of the pyramid.
The internal ramp theory as applied in the case of lifting stone blocks with the ramp hidden in the core is a challenge. This idea enables us to study various procedures and methods employed and time taken to construct the project. Project construction takes into account three feasibility stages but the ramp theory does not talk about feasibility study. This result into a big question on how can just stone blocks is arranged without clear indication on how the method works.
In 2844 BC a modest layer of pyramid was constructed facing outward rather than upwards. The procedure was to construct a small but enlarged pyramid of about 590 to 690 feet but it was left incomplete. A lot of efforts were spent preparing site and cutting out stairways and other features and stones were used to start the pyramid. In 2837 BC large pyramid collapsed at Maidum and some people believed it collapsed during construction process after it was finished (Paula160).
During time of Pharaoh it was hard to determine how they studied in a minute the incredible construction into comprehensive details before getting down working. Sneferu encountered many problems while building a suitable pyramid for his burial which was built near sites of South Giza. The first construction at Meidum had structural problems so it was never used. Another one was built at Dashur called Bent pyramid which developed cracks on the walls because of the changes on sides.
Huge cedar rocks were placed between the walls to protect the pyramid from collapsing inwards. This led to another successful pyramid construction made of mad scrambles. A bit of evidence to support the ramp theory was a solution. The French team had to survey the Great Pyramid using micro gravimeters in measuring the density of different pyramid sections thereby detecting hidden chambers.
Henri Houdin presented his theory at scientific conference and mentioned that their computer analysis did yield one curious image and they ignored this because they could not interpret. The internal ramp had a considerable evidence to solve its problems of pyramid construction. Several methods including use of high resolution infrared photography, sonar and power micro gravimeters were used as a solution. If indeed it was able to remove a few stone blocks from the outer part of the pyramid and the ramp will be left hidden inside the Great Pyramid.
Structural functions of the pyramid
The great pyramid in Egypt serves as an importance appearance in historical relation. The ancient people necessitated the design of the pyramid objects and elements in a way that it necessitated special relation and unique impacts on each other. The structure created multiple complex solution including cutting faces making it a permanent exhibition place.
The structure act as a centre for tourism in that many tourists from different parts of the word tour the place since it one of the seven wonders in the world. It is a sector for architectural approach and solution for the requirements of the program in the ancient Egyptians culture.
The pyramid structure portrays the cultural believes of the ancient Egyptians. They believe the pyramid had cultural message of worship since the form of pyramid could come from the worship of the sun (Mansour 322).The project was a central addition to collection of museum elements. The design conceives the museum as the foot standing extensions to the pyramids. The museum is agate way to the historical attractions of the pyramids.
People’s believes on construction of the pyramid
The numbers of clues that explain construction methods of the pyramid are many. Some researchers and scientists tried to explain how the pyramid was constructed and they came up with different ideologies but this left some people unsatisfied. From the above theories scientists explained how stone blocks were arranged from bottom up to top using various methods including cranes, mysterious tools and technologies. Another approach was lifting of average blocks. This determines the amount of energy needed to lift the average blocks and it made people believe that the bottom was heavy (Yasser 17). People believed the amount of limestone blocks used were 2.5 million in order to build the pyramid. However the approaches were criticized because people just believed on what they suggested but were not sure on their theories.
The great pyramid is one of the wonders of earth with mystery behind it. It is a fantastic project unmatched and a testament to the ancient Egyptians. Many theories tried to explain how the pyramid was constructed but all theories had weakness. This is because they failed to explain fully how the project was initiated and how technology was applied. This left many people with an open mind to think and examine their specula achievements. It is possible to conclude how the Great pyramid was constructed without knowing the tools which Egyptians used. Consequently the time spent to build the pyramid was a great question since people were not sure the way calculations were made. Up to now the Pyramid in Egypt has left people with a lot of believes on how it came to existence.